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SURE (sugar responsive) is a cis element in plant sugar signaling. The SURE element was reported first for potato, in which it confers sugar responsiveness to the patatin promoter. A SURE binding transcription factor has not been isolated. We have isolated a transcription factor cDNA from barley and purified the corresponding protein. The transcription(More)
Caspases are essential in animal programmed cell death both as initiator and executioner proteases. Plants do not have close caspase homologues, but several instances of caspase-like proteolytic activity have been demonstrated in connection with programmed cell death in plants. It was asked if caspase-like proteases are involved during development of the(More)
Sample degradation is a common problem in all types of proteomic analyses as it generates protein and peptide fragments that can interfere with analytical results. An important step in preventing such artefacts is to preserve the native, intact proteome as early as possible during sample preparation prior to proteomic analysis. Using the budding yeast(More)
After tissue or body fluid sampling, proteases and other protein-modifying enzymes can rapidly change composition of the proteome. As a direct consequence, analytical results will reflect a mix of in vivo proteome and ex vivo degradation products. Vital information about the presampling state may be destroyed or distorted, leading to variation between(More)
N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (GnTII, EC is a Golgi enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of glycoprotein-bound N-linked oligosaccharides, catalysing an essential step in the conversion of oligomannose-type to complex N-glycans. GnTII activity has been detected in both animals and plants. However, while cDNAs encoding the enzyme have already(More)
Little is known about the nature of post mortem degradation of proteins and peptides on a global level, the so-called degradome. This is especially true for nonneural tissues. Degradome properties in relation to sampling procedures on different tissues are of great importance for the studies of, for instance, post translational modifications and/or the(More)
The effectiveness of rapid and controlled heating of intact tissue to inactivate native enzymatic activity and prevent proteome degradation has been evaluated. Mouse brains were bisected immediately following excision, with one hemisphere being heat treated followed by snap freezing in liquid nitrogen while the other hemisphere was snap frozen immediately.(More)
Starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity in the cassava storage root exhibited a diurnal fluctuation, dictated by a transcriptional oscillation of the corresponding SBE genes. The peak of SBE activity coincided with the onset of sucrose accumulation in the storage, and we conclude that the oscillatory mechanism keeps the starch synthetic apparatus in the(More)
In biological samples, proteins and peptides are altered by proteolytic activity. The actual ex vivo form of the peptidome or proteome analyzed, therefore, does not always reflect the natural in vivo state. Sample stabilization and sample treatment are thereby decisive for how far these two states diverge. To assess ex vivo formation of peptides, we used(More)
Correct matches on a matching-to-sample procedure were reinforced under fixed-interval, chained fixed-interval, and fixed-interval schedules with exteroceptive stimulus changes correlated with time since the last reinforcer (an added clock). For all four pigeons, accuracy changed within the fixed-interval and fixed-interval schedules with added clock,(More)