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The retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a nuclear receptor that functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor. Little is known about the ligands that activate RXR in vivo. Here, we identified a factor in brain tissue from adult mice that activates RXR in cell-based assays. Purification and analysis of the factor by mass spectrometry revealed that it is(More)
In alphaviruses, here represented by Semliki Forest virus, infection requires an acid-responsive spike configuration to facilitate membrane fusion. The creation of this relies on the chaperone function of glycoprotein E2 precursor (p62) and its maturation cleavage into the small external E3 and the membrane-anchored E2 glycoproteins. To reveal how the E3(More)
Bone cells' early responses to estrogen and mechanical strain were investigated in the ROS 17/2.8 cell line. Immunoblotting with antiphosphorylated estrogen receptor a (ER-alpha) antibody showed that when these cells were exposed for 10 minutes to estrogen (10(-8) M) or a single period of cyclic dynamic strain (peak 3400 microepsilon, 1 Hz, 600 cycles),(More)
The structure of the particle formed by the SFVmSQL mutant of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been defined by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction to a resolution of 21 A. The SQL mutation blocks the cleavage of p62, the precursor of the spike proteins E2 and E3, which normally occurs in the trans-Golgi. The uncleaved spike protein is(More)
In the recently developed Semliki Forest virus (SFV) DNA expression system, recombinant RNA encoding the viral replicase, and helper RNA molecules encoding the structural proteins needed for virus assembly are cotransfected into cells. Since the helper RNA lacks the sequence needed for its packaging into nucleocapsids, only recombinant RNAs should be(More)
BACKGROUND Viral spike proteins such as those of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) undergo a conformational change triggered by low pH which results in the fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes. The viral spike precursor of SFV is insensitive to low pH, and hence is fusion incompetent, until it is proteolytically cleaved to give the fusion competent(More)
The HIV-1 spike is a trimer of the transmembrane gp41 and the peripheral gp120 subunit pair. It is activated for virus-cell membrane fusion by binding sequentially to CD4 and to a chemokine receptor. Here we have studied the structural transition of the trimeric spike during the activation process. We solubilized and isolated unliganded and CD4-bound spikes(More)
The alphavirus envelope is built by heterodimers of the membrane proteins E1 and E2. The complex is formed as a p62E1 precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum. During transit to the plasma membrane (PM), it is cleaved into mature E1-E2 heterodimers, which are oligomerized into trimeric complexes, so-called spikes that bind both to each other and, at the PM,(More)
Assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is directed by the viral core protein Pr55gag. Depending on the cell type, Pr55gag accumulates either at the plasma membrane or on late endosomes/multivesicular bodies. Intracellular localization of Pr55gag determines the site of virus assembly, but molecular mechanisms that define cell surface or(More)