Learn More
The retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a nuclear receptor that functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor. Little is known about the ligands that activate RXR in vivo. Here, we identified a factor in brain tissue from adult mice that activates RXR in cell-based assays. Purification and analysis of the factor by mass spectrometry revealed that it is(More)
The structure of the particle formed by the SFVmSQL mutant of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been defined by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction to a resolution of 21 A. The SQL mutation blocks the cleavage of p62, the precursor of the spike proteins E2 and E3, which normally occurs in the trans-Golgi. The uncleaved spike protein is(More)
The HIV-1 spike is a trimer of the transmembrane gp41 and the peripheral gp120 subunit pair. It is activated for virus-cell membrane fusion by binding sequentially to CD4 and to a chemokine receptor. Here we have studied the structural transition of the trimeric spike during the activation process. We solubilized and isolated unliganded and CD4-bound spikes(More)
The activity of the membrane fusion protein Env of Moloney mouse leukaemia virus is controlled by isomerization of the disulphide that couples its transmembrane (TM) and surface (SU) subunits. We have arrested Env activation at a stage prior to isomerization by alkylating the active thiol in SU and compared the structure of isomerization-arrested Env with(More)
The HIV-1 spike is composed of three protomeric units, each containing a peripheral gp120 and a transmembrane gp41 subunit. Binding to the CD4 and the chemokine receptors triggers them to mediate virus entry into cells by membrane fusion. The spikes also represent the major target for neutralizing antibodies (Abs) against the virus. We have studied how two(More)
Alphaviruses are taken up into the endosome of the cell, where acidic conditions activate the spikes for membrane fusion. This involves dissociation of the three E2-E1 heterodimers of the spike and E1 interaction with the target membrane as a homotrimer. The biosynthesis of the heterodimer as a pH-resistant p62-E1 precursor appeared to solve the problem of(More)
  • 1