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Conspecific allorecognition, the ability for an organism to discriminate its own cells from those of another individual of the same species, has been developed by many organisms. Allorecognition specificities are determined by highly polymorphic genes. The processes by which this extreme polymorphism is generated remain largely unknown. Fungi are able to(More)
BACKGROUND Genes involved in non-self recognition and host defence are typically capable of rapid diversification and exploit specialized genetic mechanism to that end. Fungi display a non-self recognition phenomenon termed heterokaryon incompatibility that operates when cells of unlike genotype fuse and leads to the cell death of the fusion cell. In the(More)
BACKGROUND Prions are infectious proteins propagating as self-perpetuating amyloid polymers. The [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina is involved in a cell death process associated with non-self recognition. The prion forming domain (PFD) of HET-s adopts a β-solenoid amyloid structure characterized by the two fold repetition of an elementary triangular(More)
Filamentous fungi are naturally able of somatic fusions. When cells of unlike genotype at specific het loci fuse, non-self recognition operates in the fusion cell and a cell death reaction termed cell death by incompatibility is triggered. In Podospora anserina cell death by incompatibility is characterized by a dramatic vacuolar enlargement, induction of(More)
In fungi, cell fusion between genetically unlike individuals triggers a cell death reaction known as the incompatibility reaction. In Podospora anserina, the genes controlling this process belong to a gene family encoding STAND proteins with an N-terminal cell death effector domain, a central NACHT domain and a C-terminal WD-repeat domain. These(More)
Vegetative incompatibility is a programmed cell death reaction that occurs when fungal cells of unlike genotypes fuse. Genes defining vegetative incompatibility (het genes) are highly polymorphic, and most if not all incompatibility systems include a protein partner bearing the fungus-specific domain termed the HET domain. The nonallelic het-C/het-E(More)
In filamentous fungi, allorecognition takes the form of heterokaryon incompatibility, a cell death reaction triggered when genetically distinct hyphae fuse. Heterokaryon incompatibility is controlled by specific loci termed het-loci. In this article, we analyzed the natural variation in one such fungal allorecognition determinant, the het-c heterokaryon(More)
In filamentous fungi, a cell death reaction occurs when cells of unlike genotype fuse. This cell death reaction, known as incompatibility reaction, is genetically controlled by a set of loci termed het loci (for heterokaryon incompatibility loci). In Podospora anserina, genes induced during this cell death reaction (idi genes) have been identified. The(More)
In filamentous fungi, a programmed cell death (PCD) reaction occurs when cells of unlike genotype fuse. This reaction is caused by genetic differences at specific loci termed het loci (for heterokaryon incompatibility). Although several het genes have been characterized, the mechanism of this cell death reaction and its relation to PCD in higher eukaryotes(More)
In fungi, vegetative incompatibility is a conspecific non-self recognition mechanism that restricts formation of viable heterokaryons when incompatible alleles of specific het loci interact. In Podospora anserina, three non-allelic incompatibility systems have been genetically defined involving interactions between het-c and het-d, het-c and het-e, het-r(More)