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Selective predation of aposematic signals is expected to promote phenotypic uniformity. But while these signals may be uniform within a population, numerous species display impressive variations in warning signals among adjacent populations. Predators from different localities who learn to avoid distinct signals while performing intense selection on others(More)
Despite accumulating evidence for selection within natural systems, the importance of random genetic drift opposing Wright's and Fisher's views of evolution continue to be a subject of controversy. The geographical diversification of aposematic signals appears to be a suitable system to assess the factors involved in the process of adaptation since both(More)
Genetic dominance in polymorphic loci may respond to selection; however, the evolution of dominance in complex traits remains a puzzle. We analyse dominance at a wing-patterning supergene controlling local mimicry polymorphism in the butterfly Heliconius numata. Supergene alleles are associated with chromosomal inversion polymorphism, defining ancestral(More)
The Heliconius butterflies are a widely studied adaptive radiation of 46 species spread across Central and South America, several of which are known to hybridize in the wild. Here, we present a substantially improved assembly of the Heliconius melpomene genome, developed using novel methods that should be applicable to improving other genome assemblies(More)
Positive frequency-dependent selection (FDS) is a selection regime where the fitness of a phenotype increases with its frequency, and it is thought to underlie important adaptive strategies resting on signaling and communication. However, whether and how positive FDS truly operates in nature remains unknown, which hampers our understanding of signal(More)
Identifying the genetic basis of adaptive variation is challenging in non-model organisms and quantitative real time PCR. is a useful tool for validating predictions regarding the expression of candidate genes. However, comparing expression levels in different conditions requires rigorous experimental design and statistical analyses. Here, we focused on the(More)
Reticular dysgenesis is a human severe combined immunodeficiency that is primarily characterized by profound neutropenia and lymphopenia. The condition is caused by mutations in the adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) gene, resulting in the loss of mitochondrial AK2 protein expression. AK2 regulates the homeostasis of mitochondrial adenine nucleotides (ADP, ATP and(More)
Due to their preference for undisturbed habitats, the butterflies of the genus Melinaea are promising indicators of ecological conditions. Here we describe 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers, with 3–26 alleles per locus, an observed heterozygosity of 0.138–0.889, and an expected heterozygosity of 0.400–0.970. These markers will prove useful in(More)
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