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T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain–containing 3 (Tim-3) is an inhibitory receptor that is expressed on exhausted T cells during infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus. By contrast, Tim-3 expression and function are defective in multiple human autoimmune diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms modulating Tim-3 function are not well understood.(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent immune modulators, but their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We performed a detailed analysis of the frequency and function of Tregs in a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals and HIV-1 negative controls. While HIV "elite controllers" and uninfected(More)
The impact of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Although it has been shown that Tregs can be infected with HIV-1, the consequences of infection on a per-cell basis are still unknown. In vitro HIV-GFP infected and noninfected Tregs were isolated by flow-based(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent immune modulators, but their precise role in HIV pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Most studies to date have focused on frequencies or phenotypes of 'bulk' Treg populations. However, although antigen-specific Tregs have been reported in other diseases, HIV-1 epitope-specific Tregs have not been described to(More)
T cell dysfunction in the presence of ongoing antigen exposure is a cardinal feature of chronic viral infections with persistent high viremia, including HIV-1. Although interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been implicated as an important mediator of this T cell dysfunction, the regulation of IL-10 production in chronic HIV-1 infection remains poorly understood. We(More)
Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and(More)
While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants(More)
CD4+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potent immune modulators and serve an important function in human immune homeostasis. Depletion of Tregs has led to measurable increases in antigen-specific T cell responses in vaccine settings for cancer and infectious pathogens. However, their role in HIV-1 immuno-pathogenesis remains controversial, as they could either(More)
The existence of HIV reservoirs in infected individuals under combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) represents a major obstacle toward cure. Viral reservoirs are assessed by quantification of HIV nucleic acids, a method which does not discriminate between infectious and defective viruses, or by viral outgrowth assays, which require large numbers of cells(More)