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The large-scale controls on the climate of the South American Altiplano are investigated using local observations, reanalysis data and general circulation model experiments. The objective is to gain understanding of causes of climate variability and climate change by relating mechanisms that operate on timescales ranging from the intraseasonal to the(More)
Keywords: Andes glaciers climate change water Observations on glacier extent from Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia give a detailed and unequivocal account of rapid shrinkage of tropical Andean glaciers since the Little Ice Age (LIA). This retreat however, was not continuous but interrupted by several periods of stagnant or even advancing glaciers, most recently(More)
The South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) is a prominent feature of summertime climate over South America and has been identified in a number of paleoclimatic records from across the continent, including records based on stable isotopes. The relationship between the stable isotopic composition of precipitation and interannual variations in monsoon strength,(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o This paper documents the main features of the climate and climate variability over South America, on the basis of instrumental observations gathered during the 20th Century. It should provide a modern reference framework for paleoclimate research in South America, targeting high-resolution proxies over the past few centuries. Several(More)
Linear trend analysis of observational data combined with model diagnostics from an atmospheric general circulation model are employed to search for potential mechanisms related to the observed glacier retreat in the tropical Andes between 1950 and 1998. Observational evidence indicates that changes in precipitation amount or cloud cover over the last(More)
[1] We use two atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs), the ECHAM-4 and the GISS II models, to analyze the interannual variability of d 18 O in precipitation over the tropical Americas. Several different simulations with isotopic tracers forced with observed global sea surface temperatures (SST) between 1950 and 1998 reveal the influence of varying(More)
We review the history of the South American summer monsoon (SASM) over the past ∼ 2000 yr based on high-resolution stable isotope proxies from speleothems, ice cores and lake sediments. Our review is complemented by an analysis of an isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) for the past 130 yr. Proxy records from the monsoon belt in the(More)
During the last glacial period, large millennial-scale temperature oscillations--the 'Dansgaard/Oeschger' cycles--were the primary climate signal in Northern Hemisphere climate archives from the high latitudes to the tropics. But whether the influence of these abrupt climate changes extended to the tropical and subtropical Southern Hemisphere, where changes(More)
[1] We use the ECHAM-4 and the GISS II atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) with incorporated stable isotopic tracers and forced with observed global sea surface temperatures (SST) between 1979 and 1998, to simulate the d 18 O signal in three tropical Andean ice cores, from Huascarán (Peru), Quelccaya (Peru), and Sajama (Bolivia). In both models,(More)