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For slowly evolving, discrete-time-dependent systems of difference equations (iterated maps), we believe the simplest means of demonstrating the validity of the averaging method at first order is by way of a lemma that we call Besjes' inequality. In this paper, we develop the Besjes inequality for identity maps with perturbations that are (i) at low-order(More)
We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the X-Ray FEL regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions , and we examine this dynamical system as the wave length λ of the traveling wave(More)
When polarized particles are accelerated in a synchrotron, the spin precession can be periodically driven by Fourier components of the electromagnetic fields through which the particles travel. This leads to resonant perturbations when the spin-precession frequency is close to a linear combination of the orbital frequencies. When such resonance conditions(More)
In this contribution, a measurement concept for the volume fraction determination of pneumatic conveyed rice, named pseudo transmission measurement, is presented. The theoretical background of the pseudo transmission measurement as well as an adequate permittivity mixing equation is discussed in detail. Due to the essential knowledge of the rice's(More)
We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the x-ray free electron laser (FEL) regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions, and we examine this dynamical system as the wavelength of(More)
Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in–depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarisation at and near(More)
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