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Microglia are crucially important myeloid cells in the CNS and constitute the first immunological barrier against pathogens and environmental insults. The factors controlling microglia recruitment from the blood remain elusive and the direct circulating microglia precursor has not yet been identified in vivo. Using a panel of bone marrow chimeric and(More)
Microglia are crucial for immune responses in the brain. Although their origin from the yolk sac has been recognized for some time, their precise precursors and the transcription program that is used are not known. We found that mouse microglia were derived from primitive c-kit(+) erythromyeloid precursors that were detected in the yolk sac as early as 8 d(More)
The differentiation of follicular dendritic cells (FDC) is essential to the remarkable microanatomic plasticity of lymphoid follicles. Here we show that FDC arise from ubiquitous perivascular precursors (preFDC) expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ). PDGFRβ-Cre-driven reporter gene recombination resulted in FDC labeling, whereas(More)
Upon the aberrant activation of oncogenes, normal cells can enter the cellular senescence program, a state of stable cell-cycle arrest, which represents an important barrier against tumour development in vivo. Senescent cells communicate with their environment by secreting various cytokines and growth factors, and it was reported that this 'secretory(More)
The MAP3-kinase TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) critically modulates innate and adaptive immune responses and connects cytokine stimulation with activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. Here, we report that conditional ablation of TAK1 in liver parenchymal cells (hepatocytes and cholangiocytes) causes hepatocyte dysplasia and early-onset(More)
Current antiviral agents can control but not eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV), because HBV establishes a stable nuclear covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Interferon-α treatment can clear HBV but is limited by systemic side effects. We describe how interferon-α can induce specific degradation of the nuclear viral DNA without hepatotoxicity and(More)
PrP(C)-deficient mice expressing prion protein variants with large amino-proximal deletions (termed PrP(DeltaF)) suffer from neurodegeneration, which is rescued by full-length PrP(C). We now report that expression of PrP(DeltaCD), a PrP variant lacking 40 central residues (94-134), induces a rapidly progressive, lethal phenotype with extensive central and(More)
The prion, a conformational variant of a host protein, is the infectious particle responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), a fatal neurodegenerative disease of humans and animals. The principal target of prion pathology is the brain, yet most TSEs also display prion replication at extra-cerebral locations, including secondary lymphoid(More)
Most transmissible spongiform encephalopathies arise either spontaneously or by infection. Mutations of PRNP, which encodes the prion protein, PrP, segregate with phenotypically similar diseases. Here we report that moderate overexpression in transgenic mice of mPrP(170N,174T), a mouse PrP with two point mutations that subtly affect the structure of its(More)
Chronic infection is difficult to overcome because of exhaustion or depletion of cytotoxic effector CD8(+) T cells (cytotoxic T lymphoytes (CTLs)). Here we report that signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induced intrahepatic aggregates of myeloid cells that enabled the population expansion of CTLs (iMATEs: 'intrahepatic myeloid-cell aggregates for T(More)