Mathew R. Heal

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OBJECTIVE This study investigated the association between long-term exposure to black smoke (BS) air pollution and mortality in two related Scottish cohorts with 25 years of follow-up. METHODS Risk factors were collected during 1970-1976 for 15331 and 6680 participants in the Renfrew/Paisley and Collaborative cohorts respectively. Exposure to BS during(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We previously demonstrated that exposure to dilute diesel exhaust causes vascular dysfunction in humans. OBJECTIVES We conducted a study to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter causes vascular dysfunction. (More)
The diversity of ambient particle size and chemical composition considerably complicates pinpointing the specific causal associations between exposure to particles and adverse human health effects, the contribution of different sources to ambient particles at different locations, and the consequent formulation of policy action to most cost-effectively(More)
During the North Atlantic marine boundary layer experiment (NAMBLEX) sampling campaign at Mace Head, Ireland, both continental and maritime air masses were sampled. Aerosol was characterized both with a TSI 3800 time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and a MOUDI microorifice impactor, and particle number counts were measured independently with an(More)
The concentrations and input/output fluxes of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were measured in all relevant media for one year at a 0.86 km2 upland conifer plantation and moorland catchment in SW Scotland (n > 380 separate samples analyzed). Annual wet precipitation to the catchment was 2.5 and 0.4 m for rain and cloud, respectively. TCA input to the catchment(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution-mortality risk estimates are generally larger at longer-term, compared with short-term, exposure time scales. OBJECTIVE We compared associations between short-term exposure to black smoke (BS) and mortality with long-term exposure-mortality associations in cohort participants and with short-term exposure-mortality associations in(More)
Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) together constitute a substantial proportion of airborne particulate matter (PM). Insight into the sources of this major contributor to PM is important for policies to mitigate the impact of PM on human health and climate change. In recent years measurement of the abundance of the radioisotope of carbon ((14)C)(More)