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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Abstract A high resolution (5×5 km 2) UK-scale chemistry-transport model (EMEP4UK) is used to study ground-level ozone (O 3) during the August(More)
BACKGROUND We describe a project to quantify the burden of heat and ozone on mortality in the UK, both for the present-day and under future emission scenarios. METHODS Mortality burdens attributable to heat and ozone exposure are estimated by combination of climate-chemistry modelling and epidemiological risk assessment. Weather forecasting models (WRF)(More)
The concentrations and input/output fluxes of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were measured in all relevant media for one year at a 0.86 km2 upland conifer plantation and moorland catchment in SW Scotland (n > 380 separate samples analyzed). Annual wet precipitation to the catchment was 2.5 and 0.4 m for rain and cloud, respectively. TCA input to the catchment(More)
Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) has been implicated as an airborne pollutant responsible for adverse effects on forest health. There is considerable debate as to whether TCA observed in trees and forest soils is derived from atmospheric deposition or from in situ production. This experiment reports the results from treating 4-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea(More)
Controlled-dosing experiments with conifer seedlings have demonstrated an above-ground route of uptake for trichloroacetic acid (TCA) from aqueous solution into the canopy, in addition to uptake from the soil. The aim of this work was to investigate the loss of TCA to the canopy in a mature conifer forest exposed only to environmental concentrations of TCA(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the association between long-term exposure to black smoke (BS) air pollution and mortality in two related Scottish cohorts with 25 years of follow-up. METHODS Risk factors were collected during 1970-1976 for 15331 and 6680 participants in the Renfrew/Paisley and Collaborative cohorts respectively. Exposure to BS during(More)
Soil is an important compartment in the environmental cycling of trichloroacetic acid (TCA), but soil TCA concentration is a methodologically defined quantity; analytical methods either quantify TCA in an aqueous extract of the soil, or thermally decarboxylate TCA to chloroform in the whole soil sample. The former may underestimate the total soil TCA,(More)
Five different instruments for the determination of the mass concentration of PM10 in air were compared side-by-side for up to 33 days in an undisturbed indoor environment: a tripod mounted BGI Inc. PQ100 gravimetric sampler with a US EPA certified Graseby Andersen PM10 inlet; an Airmetrics Minivol static gravimetric sampler; a Casella cyclone gravimetric(More)
Adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution are a global challenge and of widespread concern. Recent high ambient concentration episodes of air pollutants in European cities highlighted the dynamic nature of human exposure and the gaps in data and knowledge about exposure patterns. In order to support health impact assessment it is essential to(More)
Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a higher incidence of respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis, metal fume fever (MFF), and chronic pneumonitis among welders exposed to high concentrations of metal-enriched welding fumes. Here, we studied the molecular toxicology of three different metal-rich welding fumes: NIMROD 182, NIMROD c276, and(More)