Mathew Kraatz

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Statistical analysis of electromigration (EM) lifetimes of inlaid copper interconnects, <i>in</i> <i>situ</i> microscopy experiments at embedded inlaid copper interconnect structures, and numerical simulations of grain growth and EM degradation processes are necessary for future on-chip interconnect systems with high immunity to EM-induced failure.(More)
Downstream electromigration (EM) study was performed to investigate the cap layer and the grain size effects on Cu EM reliability for the 45 nm technology node. Four sets of Cu interconnects were examined: large and small grains with and without a CoWP cap placed between the SiCN cap and the Cu lines. Without the CoWP cap, the EM lifetime was reduced by a(More)
What role do community norms play in the diffusion and persistence of new organizational practices? We explore this question through an examination of the widespread practice of wage arrears, the late and nonpayment of wages, in Russia during the 1990s. Existing research on wage arrears most often examines this practice as a means of flexible wage(More)
Several air-bridge type Cu interconnects, with air-gaps in the metal line level or extending to the via level, were modeled to evaluate their electrical performances and stress characteristics. It was found that the combination of fully-dense SiCOH dielectric and air-bridging down to the via level provides an effective dielectric constant of 2.27. This(More)
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