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The human cytomegalovirus genome encodes proteins that trigger destruction of newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The human cytomegalovirus gene US2 specifies a product capable of dislocating MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol and delivering them to the proteasome. This process(More)
BACKGROUND Analysis of global changes in gene transcription and translation by systems-based genomics and proteomics approaches provides only indirect information about protein function. In many cases, enzymatic activity fails to correlate with transcription or translation levels. Therefore, a direct method for broadly determining activities of an entire(More)
BACKGROUND The lysosomal cysteine proteases of the papain family are some of the best studied proteolytic enzymes. Small-molecule inhibitors and fluorogenic substrate mimics have been used to probe the physiological roles of these proteases. A high degree of homology between family members and overlap in substrate specificity have made elucidating(More)
Proteolysis is essential for the execution of many cellular functions. These include removal of incorrectly folded or damaged proteins, the activation of transcription factors, the ordered degradation of proteins involved in cell cycle control, and the generation of peptides destined for presentation by class I molecules of the major histocompatibility(More)
We report here that a number of commonly used small peptide caspase inhibitors consisting of a caspase recognition sequence linked to chloromethylketone, fluoromethylketone or aldehyde reactive group efficiently inhibit other cysteine proteases than caspases. The in vitro studies included cathepsins B, H, L, S, K, F, V, X and C, papain and legumain.(More)
Disruption of the connexin alpha 3 (Cx46) gene (alpha 3 (-/-)) in mice results in severe cataracts within the nuclear portion of the lens. These cataracts are associated with proteolytic processing of the abundant lens protein gamma-crystallin, leading to its aggregation and subsequent opacification of the lens. The general cysteine protease inhibitor,(More)
Hitherto the biology of proteolysis in prokaryotes, particularly in archaea, is only poorly understood. We have used the tri-peptide vinyl sulfone inhibitor carboxybenzyl-leucyl-leucyl-leucine vinyl sulfone (Z-L3VS) to study the in vivo function of proteasomes in Thermoplasma acidophilum. Z-L3VS is a potent inhibitor of the Thermoplasma proteasome and is(More)
The proteasome is a multicatalytic protease complex that plays a key role in diverse cellular functions. The peptide vinyl sulfone, carboxybenzyl-leucyl-leucyl-leucine vinyl sulfone (Z-L3VS) covalently inhibits the trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and, unlike lactacystin, also the peptidylglutamyl peptidase activity in isolated proteasomes, and blocks their(More)
Papain family cysteine proteases are key factors in the pathogenesis of cancer invasion, arthritis, osteoporosis, and microbial infections. Targeting this enzyme family is therefore one strategy in the development of new chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Little is known, however, about the efficacy, selectivity, and safety of cysteine protease(More)
BACKGROUND The proteasome is a multicatalytic protease complex responsible for most cytosolic protein breakdown. The complex has several distinct proteolytic activities that are defined by the preference of each for the carboxyterminal (P1) amino acid residue. Although mutational studies in yeast have begun to define substrate specificities of individual(More)