Math J. J. M. Candel

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OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and gender), would show independent and interactive effects on(More)
BACKGROUND Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigates the effects of emotion-oriented care on the behavior of elderly people with cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. This approach is mainly based on the validation approach, but also uses insights from other approaches like reminiscence and sensory stimulation. METHODS 16 Homes for the aged with structured day care(More)
OBJECTIVES A randomized controlled trial was conducted on the effects of emotion-oriented care on professional caregivers in homes for elderly persons. Emotion-oriented care is used in the care for cognitively impaired elderly persons and is mainly based on the validation approach. METHODS Sixteen homes for the aged were randomly allocated to an(More)
We studied the contributions of parental fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption, availability and accessibility of F&V in the home, exposure to F&V, and habit, in addition to psychosocial factors, in explaining F&V consumption in 4-12-year-old children. Furthermore, we looked for effect modification by ethnicity and gender. Children's parents (n = 1739)(More)
Consumer researchers consider convenience orientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for understanding consumer behavior towards foods. This study set out to conceptualize this construct and to develop a scale that measures it. As examined in two different samples of meal preparers, the resulting scale is reliable, satisfies a(More)
OBJECTIVE This article examined the contribution of selection and influence processes in smoking behavior similarity among friends, and changes in these processes during early and mid adolescence. DESIGN Data from 1886 Dutch high school students in the control group of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study were used. Changes in(More)
The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10,751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9,282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1 non-smokers in(More)
Cluster randomized and multicentre trials evaluate the effect of a treatment on persons nested within clusters, for instance, patients within clinics or pupils within schools. Optimal sample sizes at the cluster (centre) and person level have been derived under the restrictive assumption of equal sample sizes per cluster. This paper addresses the relative(More)
Adjustments of sample size formulas are given for varying cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials with a binary outcome when testing the treatment effect with mixed effects logistic regression using second-order penalized quasi-likelihood estimation (PQL). Starting from first-order marginal quasi-likelihood (MQL) estimation of the treatment effect, the(More)