Masumi Takahata

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Spike activation of the motoneurons innervating uropod muscles in crayfish is controlled by anaxonic interneurons located within the terminal (the 6th abdominal) ganglion. These neurons do not generate spikes either spontaneously at the resting potential level or in response to current injection of either polarity. Yet the change in the membrane potential(More)
More than half of the identified ascending interneurons originating in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the crayfish received inhibitory sensory inputs from hair afferents innervating the tailfan on the side contralateral to their main branches. Biochemical aspects of this transverse lateral inhibition of ascending interneurons were examined by the use of(More)
A characteristic physiological property of the neuromuscular junction between giant motor neurones (MoGs) and fast flexor muscles in crayfish is synaptic depression, in which repetitive electrical stimulation of the MoG results in a progressive decrease in excitatory junction potential (EJP) amplitude in flexor muscle fibres. Previous studies have(More)
The occurrence of the uropod steering response as one of the equilibrium reflexes to body rolling in crayfish is significantly facilitated if the stimulus is given while the animal is performing the abdominal posture movement. This facilitation of the descending statocyst pathway by the abdominal posture system takes place between the uropod motor neurons(More)
Unilateral mechanical stimulation of a uropod elicited an avoidance reaction in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Depending upon the animal's size, either one of two alternative behavioral acts emerged as the avoidance reaction to similar stimuli. A stationary resting posture of the crayfish and a passive extension of the abdomen were prerequisite(More)
The fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (FHL), in which Enterococcus faecalis TH10 predominated, was assayed for antifungal activity against tinea. The antifungal activity of FHL was as high as that of a synthetic fungicide. Autoclaving FHL did not reduce its antifungal activity, whereas neutralizing it did. The results suggested that(More)
Uropod motor neurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion of crayfish are continuously excited during the abdominal posture movement so that subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials from the descending statocyst pathway can elicit spike activity in the motor neurons only while the abdominal posture system is in operation. Local nonspiking interneurons(More)
1. Each abdominal ganglion of the crayfish contains peripheral inhibitors of the fast flexor muscles. These flexor inhibitors (FIs), which can effectively inhibit tension development in the tailflip powerstroke muscles, are excited by a delayed central pathway from the same giant axons which trigger escape (33). The FIs also received sensory input, which(More)
The fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (FHL) was assayed for antifungal activities against Rosellinia necatrix, Helicobasidium mompa, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium graminicola and Pyricularia oryzae. FHL completely inhibited the growth of R. necatrix, H. mompa, P. graminicola and P. oryzae, and reduced the growth of F. oxysporum by 35%.(More)