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BACKGROUND Few European studies have investigated the effects of long-term exposure to both fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µm; PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on mortality. OBJECTIVES We studied the association of exposure to NO2, PM2.5, and traffic indicators on cause-specific mortality to evaluate the form of the concentration-response relationship.(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have investigated the independent health effects of different size fractions of particulate matter (PM) in multiple locations, especially in Europe. OBJECTIVES We estimated the short-term effects of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5-10) on all-cause, cardiovascular, and(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollutants. METHODS We used data from 22 European(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS Data from 11 cohorts were collected, and occurrence of a first stroke was evaluated. Individual(More)
Adverse health effects of particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and high temperatures are well known, but the extent of their interaction on mortality is less clear. This paper describes effect modification of temperature in the PM(10)-mortality association and tests the hypothesis that higher PM(10) effects in summer are due to(More)
BACKGROUND Outbreaks of Saharan-Sahel dust over Euro-Mediterranean areas frequently induce exceedances of the Europen Union's 24-hr standard of 50 μg/m3 for particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ than 10 μm (PM10). OBJECTIVES We evaluated the effect of Saharan dust on the association between different PM fractions and daily mortality in Rome,(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have shown associations between mortality and long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution. Few cohort studies have estimated the effects of the elemental composition of particulate matter on mortality. OBJECTIVES Our aim was to study the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to elemental(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). DESIGN Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. SETTING Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. (More)
BACKGROUND Land Use Regression models (LUR) are useful to estimate the spatial variability of air pollution in urban areas. Few studies have evaluated the stability of spatial contrasts in outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) concentration over several years. We aimed to compare measured and estimated NO₂ levels 12 years apart, the stability of the exposure(More)