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Understanding how institutional changes within academia may affect the overall potential of science requires a better quantitative representation of how careers evolve over time. Because knowledge spillovers, cumulative advantage, competition, and collaboration are distinctive features of the academic profession, both the employment relationship and the(More)
Reputation is an important social construct in science, which enables informed quality assessments of both publications and careers of scientists in the absence of complete systemic information. However, the relation between reputation and career growth of an individual remains poorly understood, despite recent proliferation of quantitative research(More)
In this paper we present an analysis of the behavior of Italian Twitter users during national political elections. We monitor the volumes of the tweets related to the leaders of the various political parties and we compare them to the elections results. Furthermore, we study the topics that are associated with the co-occurrence of two politicians in the(More)
W e draw on diverse data sets to compare the institutional organization of upstream life science research across the United States and Europe. Understanding cross-national differences in the organization of innovative labor in the life sciences requires attention to the structure and evolution of biomedical networks involving public research organizations(More)
We study the betweenness centrality of fractal and nonfractal scale-free network models as well as real networks. We show that the correlation between degree and betweenness centrality C of nodes is much weaker in fractal network models compared to nonfractal models. We also show that nodes of both fractal and nonfractal scale-free networks have power-law(More)
We introduce a model of proportional growth to explain the distribution P(g)(g) of business-firm growth rates. The model predicts that P(g)(g) is exponential in the central part and depicts an asymptotic power-law behavior in the tails with an exponent zeta = 3. Because of data limitations, previous studies in this field have been focusing exclusively on(More)
The Statistical Physics of Complex Networks has recently provided new theoretical tools for policy makers. Here we extend the notion of network controllability to detect the financial institutions, i.e. the drivers, that are most crucial to the functioning of an interbank market. The system we investigate is a paradigmatic case study for complex networks(More)
The relationship between the size and the variance of firm growth rates is known to follow an approximate power-law behavior sigma(S) approximately S(-beta(S)) where S is the firm size and beta(S) approximately 0.2 is an exponent that weakly depends on S. Here, we show how a model of proportional growth, which treats firms as classes composed of various(More)