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Survey Article This article is a survey of methods for measuring agreement among corpus annotators. It exposes the mathematics and underlying assumptions of agreement coefficients, covering Krippendorff's alpha as well as Scott's pi and Cohen's kappa; discusses the use of coefficients in several annotation tasks; and argues that weighted, alpha-like(More)
We present the results of a study of the use of definite descriptions in written texts aimed at assessing the feasibility of annotating corpora with information about definite description interpretation. We ran two experiments, in which subjects were asked to classi~ the uses of definite descriptions in a corpus of 33 newspaper articles, containing a total(More)
We present an implemented system for processing definite descriptions in arbitrary domains. The design of the system is based on the results of a corpus analysis previously reported, which highlighted the prevalence of discourse-new descriptions in newspaper corpora. The annotated corpus was used to extensively evaluate the proposed techniques for matching(More)
Computational models of meaning trained on naturally occurring text successfully model human performance on tasks involving simple similarity measures, but they characterize meaning in terms of undifferentiated bags of words or topical dimensions. This has led some to question their psychological plausibility (Murphy, 2002;Schunn, 1999). We present here a(More)
In most research on concept acquisition from corpora, concepts are modeled as vectors of relations extracted from syntactic structures. In the case of modifiers, these relations often specify values of attributes, as in (attr red); this is unlike what typically proposed in theories of knowledge representation, where concepts are typically defined in terms(More)
Developing a full coreference system able to run all the way from raw text to semantic interpretation is a considerable engineering effort, yet there is very limited availability of off-the shelf tools for researchers whose interests are not in coreference, or for researchers who want to concentrate on a specific aspect of the problem. We present BART, a(More)
Centering theory is the best-known framework for theorizing about local coherence and salience; however, its claims are articulated in terms of notions which are only partially specified, such as " utterance, " " realization, " or " ranking. " A great deal of research has attempted to arrive at more detailed specifications of these parameters of the theory;(More)
The Trains project is an eeort to build a conversationally proocient planning assistant. A key part of the project is the construction of the Trains system, which provides the research platform for a wide range of issues in natural language understanding, mixed-initiative planning systems, and representing and reasoning about time, actions and events. Four(More)
We use the idea that actions performed in a conversation become part of the common ground as the basis for a model of context that reconciles in a general and systematic fashion the differences between the theories of discourse context used for reference resolution, intention recognition, and dialogue management. We start from the treatment of anaphoric(More)