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The aim of this paper is to draw attention to partially hydrated pollen, namely, pollen grains having a high water content (> 30%); this type of pollen is more frequent than previously thought. Various cyto-physiological strategies are used to retain water during exposure and dispersal such as cytoplasm carbohydrates; in the absence of such strategies, fast(More)
In most species, arrest of growth and a decrease in water content occur in seeds and pollen before they are dispersed. However, in a few cases, pollen and seeds may continue to develop (germinate). Examples are cleistogamy and vivipary. In all other cases, seeds and pollen are dispersed with a variable water content (2-70%), and consequently they respond(More)
Pollen accumulates starch reserves during development and the final stage of ripening. Before the anther opens, starch is totally or partially converted to pectins, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and to some unknown polysaccharides. Pollen is exposed to dispersing agents in an arrested developmental state which differs according to pollen water content. Pollen(More)
The structure of perigonal nectaries, nectar production and carbohydrate composition were compared at various stages in the lifespan of the flower of Fritillaria meleagris L. The six nectaries each occupied a groove that is located 2–4 mm above the tepal base. The average nectary measured 11.0 mm long and 1.0–1.2 mm wide. The structure of nectaries situated(More)
BACKGROUND The male gametophyte developmental programme can be divided into five phases which differ in relation to the environment and pollen hydration state: (1) pollen develops inside the anther immersed in locular fluid, which conveys substances from the mother plant--the microsporogenesis phase; (2) locular fluid disappears by reabsorption and/or(More)
BACKGROUND Pollination drops and nectars (floral nectars) are secretions related to plant reproduction. The pollination drop is the landing site for the majority of gymnosperm pollen, whereas nectar of angiosperm flowers represents a common nutritional resource for a large variety of pollinators. Extrafloral nectars also are known from all vascular plants,(More)
Studies on the diversity of yeasts in floral nectar were first carried out in the late 19th century. A narrow group of fermenting, osmophilous ascomycetes were regarded as exclusive specialists able to populate this unique and species poor environment. More recently, it became apparent that microorganisms might play an important role in the process of plant(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Nectar is a very complex mixture of substances. Some components (sugars and amino acids) are considered primary alimentary rewards for animals and have been investigated and characterized in numerous species for many years. In contrast, nectar proteins have been the subject of few studies and little is known of their function. Only very(More)
Nectar resorption and sugar translocation were studied in Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae) and Platanthera chlorantha (Orchidaceae) by micro-autoradiography. In both species, nectar was resorbed in pollinated and unpollinated flowers and ovules developing into seeds were found to be the main sugar sink. In C. pepo, the mobility of resorbed sugars in(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Tissue desiccation is considered to be involved in anther opening, and it is agreed that environmental humidity affects its timing. Different sources of evidence suggest that the later steps of the process (i.e. stomium opening and outward wall bending) are regulated in different ways. Anther opening was studied in Allium triquetrum(More)