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DNA replication forks pause in front of lesions on the template, eventually leading to cytotoxic chromosomal rearrangements. The in vivo structure of damaged eukaryotic replication intermediates has been so far elusive. Combining electron microscopy (EM) and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, we found that UV-irradiated S. cerevisiae cells uncouple(More)
S-phase cells overcome chromosome lesions through replication-coupled recombination processes that seem to be assisted by recombination-dependent DNA structures and/or replication-related sister chromatid junctions. RecQ helicases, including yeast Sgs1 and human BLM, have been implicated in both replication and recombination and protect genome integrity by(More)
In response to DNA damage and blocks to replication, eukaryotes activate the checkpoint pathways that prevent genomic instability and cancer by coordinating cell cycle progression with DNA repair. In budding yeast, the checkpoint response requires the Mec1-dependent activation of the Rad53 protein kinase. Active Rad53 slows DNA synthesis when DNA is damaged(More)
Checkpoint-mediated control of replicating chromosomes is essential for preventing cancer. In yeast, Rad53 kinase protects stalled replication forks from pathological rearrangements. To characterize the mechanisms controlling fork integrity, we analyzed replication intermediates formed in response to replication blocks using electron microscopy. At the(More)
Topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitors are an important class of anticancer drugs. The cytotoxicity of TOP1 inhibitors can be modulated by replication fork reversal through a process that requires poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. Whether regressed forks can efficiently restart and what factors are required to restart fork progression after fork(More)
Topoisomerase I (Top1) releases torsional stress during DNA replication and transcription and is inhibited by camptothecin and camptothecin-derived cancer chemotherapeutics. Top1 inhibitor cytotoxicity is frequently linked to double-strand break (DSB) formation as a result of Top1 being trapped on a nicked DNA intermediate in replicating cells. Here we use(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53 protein kinase is required for the execution of checkpoint arrest at multiple stages of the cell cycle. We found that Rad53 autophosphorylation activity depends on in trans phosphorylation mediated by Mec1 and does not require physical association with other proteins. Uncoupling in trans phosphorylation from(More)
O(6)-Methylguanine ((Me)G) is a highly cytotoxic DNA modification generated by S(N)1-type methylating agents. Despite numerous studies implicating DNA replication, mismatch repair (MMR), and homologous recombination (HR) in (Me)G toxicity, its mode of action has remained elusive. We studied the molecular transactions in the DNA of yeast and mammalian cells(More)
The replication checkpoint coordinates the cell cycle with DNA replication and recombination, preventing genome instability and cancer. The budding yeast Rad53 checkpoint kinase stabilizes stalled forks and replisome-fork complexes, thus preventing the accumulation of ss-DNA regions and reversed forks at collapsed forks. We searched for factors involved in(More)
The remodelling of replication forks into four-way junctions following replication perturbation, known as fork reversal, was hypothesized to promote DNA damage tolerance and repair during replication. Albeit conceptually attractive, for a long time fork reversal in vivo was found only in prokaryotes and specific yeast mutants, calling its evolutionary(More)