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Checkpoint-mediated control of replicating chromosomes is essential for preventing cancer. In yeast, Rad53 kinase protects stalled replication forks from pathological rearrangements. To characterize the mechanisms controlling fork integrity, we analyzed replication intermediates formed in response to replication blocks using electron microscopy. At the(More)
The role of Rad51 in an unperturbed cell cycle has been difficult to distinguish from its DNA repair function. Here, using EM to visualize replication intermediates assembled in Xenopus laevis egg extract, we show that Rad51 is required to prevent the accumulation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps at replication forks and behind them. ssDNA gaps at forks(More)
Topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitors are an important class of anticancer drugs. The cytotoxicity of TOP1 inhibitors can be modulated by replication fork reversal through a process that requires poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. Whether regressed forks can efficiently restart and what factors are required to restart fork progression after fork(More)
Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and(More)
Chromosomal replication is entwined with DNA damage tolerance (DDT) and chromatin structure establishment via elusive mechanisms. Here we examined how specific replication conditions affecting replisome architecture and repriming impact on DDT. We show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Polα/Primase/Ctf4 mutants, proficient in bulk DNA replication, are defective(More)
Accurate processing of stalled or damaged DNA replication forks is paramount to genomic integrity and recent work points to replication fork reversal and restart as a central mechanism to ensuring high-fidelity DNA replication. Here, we identify a novel DNA2- and WRN-dependent mechanism of reversed replication fork processing and restart after prolonged(More)
Replication fork reversal protects forks from breakage after poisoning of Topoisomerase 1. We here investigated fork progression and chromosomal breakage in human cells in response to a panel of sublethal genotoxic treatments, using other topoisomerase poisons, DNA synthesis inhibitors, interstrand cross-linking inducers, and base-damaging agents. We used(More)
Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress activates the DNA damage response (DDR), a crucial anticancer barrier. DDR inactivation in these conditions promotes genome instability and tumor progression, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are elusive. We found that overexpression of both Cyclin E and Cdc25A rapidly slowed down replication forks and induced(More)
Template switching (TS) mediates damage bypass via a recombination-related mechanism involving PCNA polyubiquitination and polymerase δ-dependent DNA synthesis. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and EM, here we characterize TS intermediates arising in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a defined chromosome locus, identifying five major families of(More)
Replication fork integrity, which is essential for the maintenance of genome stability, is monitored by checkpoint-mediated phosphorylation events. 14-3-3 proteins are able to bind phosphorylated proteins and were shown to play an undefined role under DNA replication stress. Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) processes stalled replication forks in checkpoint-defective(More)