Massimo Lopes

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S-phase cells overcome chromosome lesions through replication-coupled recombination processes that seem to be assisted by recombination-dependent DNA structures and/or replication-related sister chromatid junctions. RecQ helicases, including yeast Sgs1 and human BLM, have been implicated in both replication and recombination and protect genome integrity by(More)
Checkpoint-mediated control of replicating chromosomes is essential for preventing cancer. In yeast, Rad53 kinase protects stalled replication forks from pathological rearrangements. To characterize the mechanisms controlling fork integrity, we analyzed replication intermediates formed in response to replication blocks using electron microscopy. At the(More)
DNA replication forks pause in front of lesions on the template, eventually leading to cytotoxic chromosomal rearrangements. The in vivo structure of damaged eukaryotic replication intermediates has been so far elusive. Combining electron microscopy (EM) and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, we found that UV-irradiated S. cerevisiae cells uncouple(More)
In response to DNA damage and blocks to replication, eukaryotes activate the checkpoint pathways that prevent genomic instability and cancer by coordinating cell cycle progression with DNA repair. In budding yeast, the checkpoint response requires the Mec1-dependent activation of the Rad53 protein kinase. Active Rad53 slows DNA synthesis when DNA is damaged(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53 protein kinase is required for the execution of checkpoint arrest at multiple stages of the cell cycle. We found that Rad53 autophosphorylation activity depends on in trans phosphorylation mediated by Mec1 and does not require physical association with other proteins. Uncoupling in trans phosphorylation from(More)
The role of Rad51 in an unperturbed cell cycle has been difficult to distinguish from its DNA repair function. Here, using EM to visualize replication intermediates assembled in Xenopus laevis egg extract, we show that Rad51 is required to prevent the accumulation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps at replication forks and behind them. ssDNA gaps at forks(More)
Cells overcome intra-S DNA damage and replication impediments by coupling chromosome replication to sister chromatid-mediated recombination and replication-bypass processes. Further, molecular junctions between replicated molecules have been suggested to assist sister chromatid cohesion until anaphase. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have(More)
Replication fork reversal protects forks from breakage after poisoning of Topoisomerase 1. We here investigated fork progression and chromosomal breakage in human cells in response to a panel of sublethal genotoxic treatments, using other topoisomerase poisons, DNA synthesis inhibitors, interstrand cross-linking inducers, and base-damaging agents. We used(More)
Mismatch repair (MMR) is a key antimutagenic process that increases the fidelity of DNA replication and recombination. Yet genetic experiments showed that MMR is required for antibody maturation, a process during which the immunoglobulin loci of antigen-stimulated B cells undergo extensive mutagenesis and rearrangements. In an attempt to elucidate the(More)
Topoisomerase I (Top1) releases torsional stress during DNA replication and transcription and is inhibited by camptothecin and camptothecin-derived cancer chemotherapeutics. Top1 inhibitor cytotoxicity is frequently linked to double-strand break (DSB) formation as a result of Top1 being trapped on a nicked DNA intermediate in replicating cells. Here we use(More)