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The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a short cognitive and behavioural six-subtest battery for the bedside screening of a global executive dysfunction; although recently devised, it is already extensively used thanks to its ease of administration and claimed sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to derive Italian normative values from a sample of(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the results of deep brain stimulation of the ipsilateral posterior hypothalamus for the treatment of drug-resistant chronic cluster headaches (CHs). A technique for electrode placement is reported. METHODS Because recent functional studies suggested hypothalamic dysfunction as the cause of CH bouts, we explored the therapeutic(More)
BACKGROUND The therapeutic use of deep brain stimulation to relieve intractable pain began in the 1950s. In some patients, stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter induced headache with migrainous features, indicating a pathophysiological link between neuromodulation of certain brain structures and headache. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Neuroimaging studies(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Although cluster headache has traditionally been thought of as a vascular headache disorder, its periodicity suggests an involvement of central areas such as the hypothalamus. This review covers the past 3 years, which have seen remarkable progress in understanding the pathophysiology of circadian headache syndromes and have brought(More)
OPINION STATEMENT Primary cluster headache (CH) is an excruciatingly severe pain condition. Several pharmacologic agents are available to treat chronic CH, but few double-blind, randomized clinical trials have been conducted on these agents in recent years, and the quality of the evidence supporting their use is often low, particularly for preventive(More)
The authors report long-term results of continuous hypothalamic stimulation in 16 chronic drug-refractory patients with cluster headache (CH). At a mean follow-up of 23 months, 13 patients are persistently pain-free or almost pain-free, and the other 3 are improved. There are no persistent side effects. Hypothalamic stimulation is an effective, safe, and(More)
The rare primary headache short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) is characterized by 3 to 200 attacks per day of severe unilateral orbital pain. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows increased blood flow in the ipsilateral posterior inferior hypothalamus during attacks, indicating(More)
Cluster headache is the most severe of the primary headaches. Positron emission tomography and functional MRI studies have shown that the ipsilateral posterior hypothalamus is activated during cluster headache attacks and is structurally asymmetric in these patients. These changes are highly specific for the condition and suggest that the cluster headache(More)