Massimo Leone

Learn More
The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a short cognitive and behavioural six-subtest battery for the bedside screening of a global executive dysfunction; although recently devised, it is already extensively used thanks to its ease of administration and claimed sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to derive Italian normative values from a sample of(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure plasma and platelet levels of dopamine in patients with migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and cluster headache. BACKGROUND Clinical, genetic, and pharmacological evidences suggest that an abnormality of dopaminergic system plays a role in migraine pathogenesis. Direct evidence of an abnormal metabolism of dopamine in(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the results of deep brain stimulation of the ipsilateral posterior hypothalamus for the treatment of drug-resistant chronic cluster headaches (CHs). A technique for electrode placement is reported. METHODS Because recent functional studies suggested hypothalamic dysfunction as the cause of CH bouts, we explored the therapeutic(More)
Cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) are primary headaches recently classified together as trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). The causes of these headaches have long been debated, with "peripheral" hypotheses in opposition to "central"(More)
We provide a detailed case history of the first patient to receive bilateral hypothalamic stimulation to control severe bilateral chronic intractable cluster headaches initially occurring mostly on the left. These attacks were accompanied by life-threatening hypertensive crises and a grave deterioration in the patient's psychological state. Destructive(More)
OBJECT Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a potentially serious pathological syndrome consisting of specific symptoms and neuroradiological signs that can sometimes be used to assess the efficacy of the treatment. In this paper the authors report a series of 28 patients with this syndrome who were all treated with an epidural blood patch at the(More)
The rare primary headache short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) is characterized by 3 to 200 attacks per day of severe unilateral orbital pain. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows increased blood flow in the ipsilateral posterior inferior hypothalamus during attacks, indicating(More)
Drug refractory chronic daily headache (CDH) is a highly disabling condition. CDH is usually regarded as the negative evolution of chronic migraine (CM) and is characterized by high prevalence of psychiatric disorders, especially mood disorders. Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment option for selected patients with medically refractory(More)
CONTEXT A variety of neuromodulatory approaches available today has broadened our therapeutic options significantly especially in drug refractory patients with chronic cluster headache and chronic migraine. OVERVIEW It is a dynamic field with a current trend to non-invasive transcutaneous stimulation approaches. However, sound studies providing evidence(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Although cluster headache has traditionally been thought of as a vascular headache disorder, its periodicity suggests an involvement of central areas such as the hypothalamus. This review covers the past 3 years, which have seen remarkable progress in understanding the pathophysiology of circadian headache syndromes and have brought(More)