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The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human fungal pathogen. Two varieties, C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii, have been identified. Both are heterothallic with two mating types, MATa and MATalpha. Some rare isolates are self-fertile and are considered occasional diploid or aneuploid strains. In the(More)
This communication describes the consensus multi-locus typing scheme established by the Cryptococcal Working Group I (Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii) of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) using seven unlinked genetic loci for global strain genotyping. These genetic loci include the housekeeping genes(More)
During a European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) prospective survey of cryptococcosis in Europe (from July 1997 to December 1999) 655 cases were reported from 17 countries; 565 of the completed questionnaires were evaluable. Cryptococcosis was associated with HIV infection in 77% of cases (range 57.5-94%). Assessment of the laboratory data(More)
Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease affecting more than one million people per year worldwide. The main etiological agents of cryptococcosis are the two sibling species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii that present numerous differences in geographical distribution, ecological niches, epidemiology, pathobiology, clinical presentation and(More)
Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Europe were acquired from an autochthonous source or associated with travel, we used multilocus sequence typing(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from 207 HIV positive and HIV negative patients hospitalized in Northern Italy were serotyped by slide agglutination. One Brazilian HIV negative woman was infected by var. gattii serotype B and all the other patients by var. neoformans, serotype D in 71%, serotype A in 24.6% and serotype AD in 3.4%. No difference was(More)
Recent attempts to characterise the hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans have led to the identification of a cryptic population of hybrid strains ('H strains') with double DNA content but only a single mating-type allele. To verify a set of hypotheses concerning their origin, we investigated 14 previously isolated H strains and ten F1-progeny strains(More)
Mating type plays an important role in the epidemiology and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. The present study designed a multiplex PCR method to distinguish the six mating type patterns (Aa, Da, Aalpha, Dalpha, Aa/Dalpha, and Aalpha/Da) of C. neoformans var. neoformans. PCR amplification identified one fragment for Aa (860 bp), Dalpha (413 bp) and Da(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is a heterothallic basidiomycete which possesses a bipolar mating system based on two mating type alleles, MATa and MATalpha. In the type variety, C. neoformans var. neoformans, both mating types have been found among strains of one serotype, serotype D, whereas only MATalpha was identified after extensive survey of serotype A(More)
In recent years acquired azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has been increasingly reported and a dominant mechanism of resistance (TR34/L98H) was found in clinical and environmental isolates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of azole resistance in environmental A. fumigatus isolates collected in northern Italy. A.(More)