Learn More
BACKGROUND The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with(More)
BACKGROUND Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update(More)
Kidney function should be evaluated by procedures including the calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates and the assessment of albuminuria or proteinuria as creatinine-normalized urinary ratios for albumin or total protein. GFR estimates are an approximation of true GFR, which circumvent the limitations of serum creatinine and creatinine(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary(More)
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used for analysis of kidney disease prevalence in the United States. The study investigated on prevalence, associated disorders, and kidney disease awareness in an Italian population sample. Data were collected on serum creatinine, other laboratory indices, blood pressure, and medical history in the Gubbio(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertension is the most prevalent comorbidity in individuals with chronic kidney disease. However, whether the association of the kidney disease measures, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria, with mortality or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) differs by hypertensive status is unknown. METHODS We did a meta-analysis of(More)
OBJECTIVES This study investigated the effect of gluten-free diet on pregnancy outcome and lactation in 125 women affected with celiac disease. METHODS The study has been designed as a case-control study and a before-after study. RESULTS In the case-control study, comparison of 94 untreated with 31 treated celiac women indicated that the relative risk(More)
IMPORTANCE The established chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression end point of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or a doubling of serum creatinine concentration (corresponding to a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] of −57% or greater) is a late event. OBJECTIVE To characterize the association of decline in estimated GFR with subsequent(More)
BACKGROUND Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and(More)