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1. Growing evidence points toward involvement of the human motor cortex in the control of the ipsilateral hand. We used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the pathways of these ipsilateral motor effects. 2. Ipsilateral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were obtained in hand and arm muscles of all 10 healthy adult subjects tested. They(More)
A group of European experts was commissioned to establish guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) from evidence published up until March 2014, regarding pain, movement disorders, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety(More)
Brief interruption of voluntary EMG in a hand muscle by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1), the so-called ipsilateral silent period (ISP), is a measure of interhemispheric motor inhibition. However, little is known about how volitional motor activity would modulate the ISP. Here we tested in 30 healthy(More)
Epileptic conditions are characterized by an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory influences at the cortical level. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a noninvasive evaluation of separate excitatory and inhibitory functions of the cerebral cortex. In addition, repetitive TMS (rTMS) can modulate the excitability of cortical(More)
Congenital mirror movements (CMM) are characterized by involuntary movements of one side of the body that mirror intentional movements on the opposite side. CMM reflect dysfunctions and structural abnormalities of the motor network and are mainly inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion. Recently, heterozygous mutations in DCC, the gene encoding the(More)
Unilateral movements are enabled through a distributed network of motor cortical areas but the relative contribution from the parts of this network is largely unknown. Failure of this network potentially results in mirror activation of the primary motor cortex (M1) ipsilateral to the intended movement. Here we tested the role of the right dorsal premotor(More)
The neurophysiological hallmark of congenital mirror movements (MM) are fast-conducting corticospinal projections from the hand area of one primary motor cortex to both sides of the spinal cord. It is still unclear whether the abnormal ipsilateral projection originates through branching fibres from the normal contralateral projection or constitutes a(More)
OBJECTIVE DCC is the receptor for netrin, a protein that guides axon migration of developing neurons across the body's midline. Mutations in the DCC gene were recently identified in 2 families with congenital mirror movements (MM). The objective was to study clinical and genetic characteristics of 3 European families with MM and to test whether this(More)
OBJECTIVE Systematic review and meta-analysis of the most frequent treatment-emergent central nervous system adverse events (CNS AEs) of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from double-blind, add-on, placebo-controlled studies conducted in adult epileptic patients and identification of dose-adverse effect relationships. METHODS Trial reports found by searching(More)
Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively) are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used(More)