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1. Growing evidence points toward involvement of the human motor cortex in the control of the ipsilateral hand. We used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the pathways of these ipsilateral motor effects. 2. Ipsilateral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were obtained in hand and arm muscles of all 10 healthy adult subjects tested. They(More)
Brief interruption of voluntary EMG in a hand muscle by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1), the so-called ipsilateral silent period (ISP), is a measure of interhemispheric motor inhibition. However, little is known about how volitional motor activity would modulate the ISP. Here we tested in 30 healthy(More)
A group of European experts was commissioned to establish guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) from evidence published up until March 2014, regarding pain, movement disorders, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety(More)
Epileptic conditions are characterized by an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory influences at the cortical level. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a noninvasive evaluation of separate excitatory and inhibitory functions of the cerebral cortex. In addition, repetitive TMS (rTMS) can modulate the excitability of cortical(More)
Congenital mirror movements (CMM) are characterized by involuntary movements of one side of the body that mirror intentional movements on the opposite side. CMM reflect dysfunctions and structural abnormalities of the motor network and are mainly inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion. Recently, heterozygous mutations in DCC, the gene encoding the(More)
Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively) are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used(More)
OBJECTIVE DCC is the receptor for netrin, a protein that guides axon migration of developing neurons across the body's midline. Mutations in the DCC gene were recently identified in 2 families with congenital mirror movements (MM). The objective was to study clinical and genetic characteristics of 3 European families with MM and to test whether this(More)
The neurophysiological hallmark of congenital mirror movements (MM) are fast-conducting corticospinal projections from the hand area of one primary motor cortex to both sides of the spinal cord. It is still unclear whether the abnormal ipsilateral projection originates through branching fibres from the normal contralateral projection or constitutes a(More)
The "level of processing" effect is a classical finding of the experimental psychology of memory. Actually, the depth of information processing at encoding predicts the accuracy of the subsequent episodic memory performance. When the incoming stimuli are analyzed in terms of their meaning (semantic, or deep, encoding), the memory performance is superior(More)
BACKGROUND Poor nutrition contributes to high rates of coronary heart disease among Australian Aboriginal populations. Since late 1993, the Aboriginal community described here has operated a healthy lifestyle program aimed at reducing the risk of chronic disease. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the effectiveness of a community-directed intervention program to(More)