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This paper reviews experimental contributions published in the last two decades and exploring the effect of emotional stress on neuroendocrine function in healthy humans. Laboratory studies allow standardization of the stressor and better control for known confounding factors. Commonly used stressors are mental arithmetics, speech tasks, the Stroop test,(More)
INTRODUCTION Neurocognitive impairments have been observed in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) even during the euthymic phase of the disease, potentially representing trait-associated rather than state-associated characteristics of the disorder. In the present study, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to cerebellar and(More)
There is now firm evidence that major depression is accompanied by increased baseline activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as assessed by means of 24-h urinary cortisol (UC) excretion. Recently, there were some reports that fibromyalgia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), two disorders which show a significant amplitude of(More)
There is now evidence that repeated administration of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to patients with chronic active hepatitis and cancers induces depressive symptoms. There is also evidence that induction of the cytokine network modulates the serotonergic system and that major depression is related to activation of the cytokine network and disturbances in(More)
This article reviews research on the role of psychological stress, personality, social support and other psychosocial factors in bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. After 100 years of research on man and animals, psychological stress is considered as a potential cofactor in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Psychological stress seems able to(More)
Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique of neuromodulation and neurostimulation based on the principle of electromagnetic induction of an electric field in the brain. The coil (H-coil) used in deep TMS is able to modulate cortical excitability up to a maximum depth of 6 cm and is therefore able not only to modulate the activity of the(More)
BACKGROUND Biological treatments are considered as additional options for the treatment of resistant unipolar depression. Controversial data exist about the efficacy and tolerability of three of the most used somatic treatments: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (deepTMS).(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to improve neuropsychological functioning of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to cerebellar and prefrontal cortices. METHODS Twenty-five BD outpatients underwent prefrontal (anodal) and cerebellar (cathodal) tDCS for 3 consecutive weeks. All(More)
The authors present a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to conventional treatments, which improved following nicotine augmentation administered as 4 mg chewing gum. The role of acetylcholine in the pathophysiology of OCD is not clear. The authors discuss the effect of nicotine on memory for actions.