Massimo Avoli

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Understanding the pathophysiogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) largely rests on the use of models of status epilepticus (SE), as in the case of the pilocarpine model. The main features of TLE are: (i) epileptic foci in the limbic system; (ii) an "initial precipitating injury"; (iii) the so-called "latent period"; and (iv) the presence of hippocampal(More)
Application of 4-aminopyridine (4AP, 50 microM) to combined slices of adult rat hippocampus-entorhinal cortex-induced ictal and interictal epileptiform discharges, as well as slow field potentials that were abolished by the mu-opioid agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5] enkephalin (DAGO, 10 microM) or the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide (BMI,(More)
Seizures in patients presenting with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy result from the interaction among neuronal networks in limbic structures such as the hippocampus, amygdala and entorhinal cortex. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most common forms of partial epilepsy in adulthood, is generally accompanied by a pattern of brain damage known as(More)
Continuous application of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 50 microM) to combined slices of hippocampus-entorhinal cortex obtained from adult mice induces (1) interictal discharges that initiate in the CA3 area and propagate via the hippocampal regions CA1 and subiculum to the entorhinal cortex and return to the hippocampus through the dentate gyrus; and (2) ictal(More)
The absence of fragile X mental retardation protein results in the fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common form of mental retardation associated with attention deficit, autistic behavior, and epileptic seizures. The phenotype of FXS is reproduced in fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) knockout (KO) mice that have region-specific altered expression of some(More)
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are key mediators of intrinsic neuronal and muscle excitability. Abnormal VGSC activity is central to the pathophysiology of epileptic seizures, and many of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs, including phenytoin, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine, are inhibitors of VGSC function. These antiepileptic drugs might also(More)
1. Neocortical slices of the first and second temporal gyrus and frontal lobe, removed in human epileptic patients for the relief of intractable seizures, were maintained in vitro at 35 +/- 1 degrees C. Electrophysiological properties of neurons in the deep layers (1,800-2,600 micron below the pial surface) were studied with conventional intracellular(More)
Two types of spontaneous filed potentials were recorded in rat hippocampal slices after addition of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 50 microM). One consisted of brief, epileptiform discharges that occurred at 0.6 +/- 0.2 sec-1 in the CA3 and CA1 areas. The other type occurred less frequently (0.036 +/- 0.013 sec-1) and was recorded in CA1, CA3, and dentate areas. It(More)
Human cortical dysplastic lesions are frequently associated with severe partial epilepsies. We report an immunocytochemical investigation on cortical tissue from three surgically treated patients, 20, 38, and 14 years old, with intractable epilepsy due to cortical dysplasia. The studies were performed using antibodies recognizing cytoskeletal proteins,(More)
Extracellular field potentials and [K+]o were recorded in slices of human epileptogenic neocortex maintained in vitro during perfusion with Mg(2+)-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF). The human neocortex was obtained during neurosurgical procedures for the relief of seizures that were resistant to medical treatment. Spontaneous epileptiform activity(More)