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Although the association among bacterial pneumonia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and injection-drug use seems to have been well established, accurate estimates of the risk of community-acquired pneumonia among HIV-positive and HIV-negative injection-drug users (IDUs) are still needed. To estimate the incidence of pneumonia in a community of(More)
CONTEXT According to recent studies, women have lower plasma HIV RNA concentrations than men. However, these studies did not take into account the duration of HIV infection. OBJECTIVES To analyze the relationship between viral load and gender among individuals with known date of seroconversion. SETTING Sixty infectious disease clinics in Italy. DESIGN(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial brain abscesses remain a serious central nervous system problem despite advances in neurosurgical, neuroimaging, and microbiological techniques and the availability of new antibiotics. The successful treatment of brain abscesses requires surgery, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and eradication of the primary source; nevertheless many(More)
BACKGROUND Protease inhibitor treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has been linked to the development of lipodystrophy. The effects of atazanavir on body fat distribution and related metabolic parameters were examined in antiretroviral-naive patients. METHODS HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell counts > or = 100 cells/mm3(More)
BACKGROUND There are few data concerning the risk of specific opportunistic diseases in patients with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We evaluated the correlation between the occurrence of different AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and chronic HCV infection or HCV-related liver cirrhosis in a large Italian cohort of human immunodeficiency virus(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the risk of clinical progression (CP) according to the duration of time spent without complete viral load (VL) suppression compared with that associated with periods of stably suppressed viremia in HIV-infected people who started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when previously naïve to antiretrovirals. DESIGN A cohort(More)
Rhodococcus equi causes a rare infection in immunocompromised hosts. We describe 24 cases of infection in patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Pneumonia was always the first manifestation of R. equi infection, but extrapulmonary involvement was also observed. The main sources of bacteria were sputum, bronchial(More)
Objectives of the study were to assess the differences between sexes in the likelihood of starting antiretroviral therapy (ART), in rates of sustained discontinuation from highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and in clinical progression. In a multicenter cohort study (I.Co.N.A. Study), 2323 men and 1335 women previously naive to antiretrovirals(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety of treatment interruption guided by CD4+ cell count in HIV-infected patients followed up prospectively. METHODS Patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ cell counts > 500 x 10(6) cells/l discontinued therapy with instructions to start therapy again before their CD4+ count dropped below 200 x 10(6)(More)
The aim of the present study, a multicentre trial of didanosine (ddI) compassionate use, was to identify factors associated with a better outcome in patients given ddI monotherapy. Enrolled were 1047 HIV-positive patients intolerant of and/or unresponsive to zidovudine (ZDV) therapy, with CD4+ cell counts of < 200/μl or AIDS. Didanosine was given at a dose(More)