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Cytological studies have shown that the heat shock loci 93D of Drosophila melanogaster and 2-48B of Drosophila hydei have several characteristics which suggest that they are homologous loci, yet sequence homology is barely detectable by cross-hybridization. Using cloned DNA sequences we have compared the two loci. Both loci produce transcripts of similar(More)
A clone encoding a human D2 dopamine receptor was isolated from a pituitary cDNA library and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence is 96% identical with that of the cloned rat receptor with one major difference: the human receptor contains an additional 29 amino acids in its putative third cytoplasmic loop. Southern blotting demonstrated the presence of(More)
Increased plasma level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was associated recently with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In addition, different clinical studies observed increased concentration of suPAR in various glomerular diseases and in other human pathologies with nephrotic syndromes such as HIV and Hantavirus(More)
The earliest defense against microbial infection is represented by the responses of the innate (or natural) immune system, that also profoundly regulates the adaptive (or acquired) T- and B-cell immune responses. Activation of the innate immune system is primed by microbial invasion in response to conserved structures present in large groups of(More)
Cyclophilins are a family of proteins that bind cyclosporin A (CsA) and possess peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. In addition, they are secreted by activated cells and act in a cytokine-like manner, presumably via signaling through a cell surface cyclophilin receptor. More recently, host-derived cyclophilin A (CyPA) has been shown to be(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) laboratory strains adapted to T-cell lines, as well as most syncytium-inducing primary isolates, replicate poorly in macrophages, which, beside CD4(+) T lymphocytes, are major targets of HIV-1. In the present work, we used a semiquantitative PCR-based technique to study viral entry into cells, kinetics of(More)
The natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by high viral load, depletion of immune cells, and immunodeficiency, ultimately leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome phase and the occurrence of opportunistic infections and diseases. Since the discovery of HIV in the early 1980s a naturally selected population of(More)
Cytokines are involved early in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and disease progression as a component of immunologic dysregulation and immunodeficiency and as determinants controlling virus replication. Several steps, before and after retroviral integration into host DNA in T cells and macrophages, are affected by cytokines whereas CCR5 and CXCR4 binding(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate, in human lymphoid tissue infected with HIV-1 ex vivo, the immunostimulatory and HIV inhibitory properties of pertussis toxin B oligomer (PTX-B) and of the genetically modified non-toxic PT-9K/129G. METHODS Human tonsils from uninfected donors were infected ex vivo with R5 or X4 HIV-1 in the presence or absence of PTX-B. Virus(More)
Current antiretroviral regimens (HAART) are generally effective in reducing viral replication to undetectable levels and inducing a raise in CD4 T cells. However, in approximately 5 to 15% of patients suppression of viral replication is not followed by an increase in CD4 T cells. Such patients may be at increased risk for opportunistic infections. Here we(More)