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Cytological studies have shown that the heat shock loci 93D of Drosophila melanogaster and 2-48B of Drosophila hydei have several characteristics which suggest that they are homologous loci, yet sequence homology is barely detectable by cross-hybridization. Using cloned DNA sequences we have compared the two loci. Both loci produce transcripts of similar(More)
Increased plasma level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was associated recently with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In addition, different clinical studies observed increased concentration of suPAR in various glomerular diseases and in other human pathologies with nephrotic syndromes such as HIV and Hantavirus(More)
A clone encoding a human D2 dopamine receptor was isolated from a pituitary cDNA library and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence is 96% identical with that of the cloned rat receptor with one major difference: the human receptor contains an additional 29 amino acids in its putative third cytoplasmic loop. Southern blotting demonstrated the presence of(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) laboratory strains adapted to T-cell lines, as well as most syncytium-inducing primary isolates, replicate poorly in macrophages, which, beside CD4(+) T lymphocytes, are major targets of HIV-1. In the present work, we used a semiquantitative PCR-based technique to study viral entry into cells, kinetics of(More)
Current antiretroviral regimens (HAART) are generally effective in reducing viral replication to undetectable levels and inducing a raise in CD4 T cells. However, in approximately 5 to 15% of patients suppression of viral replication is not followed by an increase in CD4 T cells. Such patients may be at increased risk for opportunistic infections. Here we(More)
CD4 T cells constitute the major cellular target of HIV infection and, in the natural evolution of the disease, are gradually lost, leading to severe immunodeficiency. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is generally effective in reducing HIV replication to undetectable levels and allows the recovery of CD4 T cells in the majority of patients(More)
Cell-associated receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is released as both full-length soluble uPAR (suPAR) and cleaved (c-suPAR) form that maintain ability to bind to integrins and other receptors, thus triggering and modulating cell signaling responses. Concerning HIV-1 infection, plasma levels of suPAR have been correlated with the severity(More)
Polarization of MP into classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2a, M2b, and M2c) macrophages is critical in mediating an effective immune response against invading pathogens. However, several pathogens use these activation pathways to facilitate dissemination and pathogenesis. Viruses generally induce an M1-like phenotype during the acute(More)
BACKGROUND Microbial translocation contributes to immune activation and disease progression during chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, its role in the African AIDS epidemic remains controversial. Here, we investigated the relationship between markers of monocyte activation, plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and HIV-1 RNA(More)
The earliest defense against microbial infection is represented by the responses of the innate (or natural) immune system, that also profoundly regulates the adaptive (or acquired) T- and B-cell immune responses. Activation of the innate immune system is primed by microbial invasion in response to conserved structures present in large groups of(More)