Massimo Alfano

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Cytological studies have shown that the heat shock loci 93D of Drosophila melanogaster and 2-48B of Drosophila hydei have several characteristics which suggest that they are homologous loci, yet sequence homology is barely detectable by cross-hybridization. Using cloned DNA sequences we have compared the two loci. Both loci produce transcripts of similar(More)
A clone encoding a human D2 dopamine receptor was isolated from a pituitary cDNA library and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence is 96% identical with that of the cloned rat receptor with one major difference: the human receptor contains an additional 29 amino acids in its putative third cytoplasmic loop. Southern blotting demonstrated the presence of(More)
The capacity of macrophages to support productive HIV-1 infection is known to be modulated by cytokines and other extracellular stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that cytokine-induced polarization of human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) into either classical (M1) or alternatively activated (M2a) MDM is associated with a reduced capacity to support(More)
Polarization of MP into classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2a, M2b, and M2c) macrophages is critical in mediating an effective immune response against invading pathogens. However, several pathogens use these activation pathways to facilitate dissemination and pathogenesis. Viruses generally induce an M1-like phenotype during the acute(More)
Infection of target cells by HIV-1 requires initial binding interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, the cell surface protein CD4, and one of the members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled chemokine receptor family. Most primary isolates (R5 strains) use chemokine receptor CCR5, but some primary syncytium-inducing, as well as T(More)
HIV infection of mononuclear phagocytes (MP), mostly as tissue macrophages, is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of HIV disease and its progression to AIDS. Although the general mechanism of infection is not dissimilar to that of CD4+ T lymphocytes occurring via interaction of the viral envelope with CD4 and a chemokine receptor (usually CCR5), other(More)
The increase of proinflammatory cytokines in vaginal secretions may serve as a surrogate marker of unwanted inflammatory reaction to microbicide products topically applied for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-1. Interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 have been proposed as indicators of inflammation and increased risk of HIV-1(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) laboratory strains adapted to T-cell lines, as well as most syncytium-inducing primary isolates, replicate poorly in macrophages, which, beside CD4(+) T lymphocytes, are major targets of HIV-1. In the present work, we used a semiquantitative PCR-based technique to study viral entry into cells, kinetics of(More)
Cytokines are involved early in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and disease progression as a component of immunologic dysregulation and immunodeficiency and as determinants controlling virus replication. Several steps, before and after retroviral integration into host DNA in T cells and macrophages, are affected by cytokines whereas CCR5 and CXCR4 binding(More)
HIV infects and propagates into CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages, although many other cell types play an important role in virus spreading and pathogenesis. In addition to regulatory viral proteins, the cytokine network has early been implicated as a major controller of the plastic capacity of HIV to spread productively or rather remain silently(More)