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Increased plasma level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was associated recently with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In addition, different clinical studies observed increased concentration of suPAR in various glomerular diseases and in other human pathologies with nephrotic syndromes such as HIV and Hantavirus(More)
Polarization of MP into classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2a, M2b, and M2c) macro-phages is critical in mediating an effective immune response against invading pathogens. However, several pathogens use these activation pathways to facilitate dissemination and pathogenesis. Viruses generally induce an M1-like phenotype during the acute(More)
HIV infection of mononuclear phagocytes (MP), mostly as tissue macrophages, is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of HIV disease and its progression to AIDS. Although the general mechanism of infection is not dissimilar to that of CD4+ T lymphocytes occurring via interaction of the viral envelope with CD4 and a chemokine receptor (usually CCR5), other(More)
The increase of proinflammatory cytokines in vaginal secretions may serve as a surrogate marker of unwanted inflammatory reaction to microbicide products topically applied for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-1. Interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 have been proposed as indicators of inflammation and increased risk of HIV-1(More)
Cell-associated receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is released as both full-length soluble uPAR (suPAR) and cleaved (c-suPAR) form that maintain ability to bind to integrins and other receptors, thus triggering and modulating cell signaling responses. Concerning HIV-1 infection, plasma levels of suPAR have been correlated with the severity(More)
Infection of target cells by HIV-1 requires initial binding interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, the cell surface protein CD4, and one of the members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled chemokine receptor family. Most primary isolates (R5 strains) use chemokine receptor CCR5, but some primary syncytium-inducing, as well as T(More)
BACKGROUND HIV replication in mononuclear phagocytes is a multi-step process regulated by viral and cellular proteins with the peculiar feature of virion budding and accumulation in intra-cytoplasmic vesicles. Interaction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) with its cell surface receptor (uPAR) has been shown to favor virion accumulation in such(More)
BACKGROUND Intestinal macrophages are key regulators of inflammatory responses to the gut microbiome and play a central role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and epithelial integrity. However, little is known about the role of these cells in HIV infection, a disease fuelled by intestinal inflammation, a loss of epithelial barrier function and increased(More)
Understanding the mechanisms by which some individuals are able to naturally control HIV-1 infection is an important goal of AIDS research. We here describe the case of an HIV-1+ woman, CASE1, who has spontaneously controlled her viremia for the last 14 of her 20 years of infection. CASE1 has been clinically monitored since 1993. Detailed immunological,(More)
The natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by high viral load, depletion of immune cells, and immunodeficiency, ultimately leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome phase and the occurrence of opportunistic infections and diseases. Since the discovery of HIV in the early 1980s a naturally selected population of(More)