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Increased plasma level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was associated recently with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In addition, different clinical studies observed increased concentration of suPAR in various glomerular diseases and in other human pathologies with nephrotic syndromes such as HIV and Hantavirus(More)
Polarization of MP into classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2a, M2b, and M2c) macrophages is critical in mediating an effective immune response against invading pathogens. However, several pathogens use these activation pathways to facilitate dissemination and pathogenesis. Viruses generally induce an M1-like phenotype during the acute(More)
HIV infection of mononuclear phagocytes (MP), mostly as tissue macrophages, is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of HIV disease and its progression to AIDS. Although the general mechanism of infection is not dissimilar to that of CD4+ T lymphocytes occurring via interaction of the viral envelope with CD4 and a chemokine receptor (usually CCR5), other(More)
The capacity of macrophages to support productive HIV-1 infection is known to be modulated by cytokines and other extracellular stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that cytokine-induced polarization of human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) into either classical (M1) or alternatively activated (M2a) MDM is associated with a reduced capacity to support(More)
The increase of proinflammatory cytokines in vaginal secretions may serve as a surrogate marker of unwanted inflammatory reaction to microbicide products topically applied for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-1. Interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 have been proposed as indicators of inflammation and increased risk of HIV-1(More)
Infection of target cells by HIV-1 requires initial binding interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, the cell surface protein CD4, and one of the members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled chemokine receptor family. Most primary isolates (R5 strains) use chemokine receptor CCR5, but some primary syncytium-inducing, as well as T(More)
Cell-associated receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is released as both full-length soluble uPAR (suPAR) and cleaved (c-suPAR) form that maintain ability to bind to integrins and other receptors, thus triggering and modulating cell signaling responses. Concerning HIV-1 infection, plasma levels of suPAR have been correlated with the severity(More)
The HIV-1 transactivating factor Tat accumulates on the surface of endothelium by interacting with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Tat also interacts with B-lymphoid Namalwa cells but only when these overexpress HSPGs after syndecan-1 cDNA transfection (SYN-NCs). Accordingly, SYN-NCs, but not mock-transfected cells, adhere to endothelial cells (ECs)(More)
BACKGROUND Glucocorticoids (GC) such as dexamethasone (Dex) can directly upregulate human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication in acutely infected cells and potentiate HIV expression from chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). We have here investigated the potential effect of Dex in(More)
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) signaling via its receptor uPAR inhibits late events in HIV-1 replication in acutely infected primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and promonocytic U937 cells. Here we show that U937-derived, chronically infected U1 cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) express integrins, uPA, and(More)