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AIMS A comparison of Enterobacteriaceae, coliform and Escherichia coli counts in chicken carcasses with and without visible faecal contamination was conducted to evaluate the role of contamination as a vehicle for generic E. coli, coliform and other enterobacteria contaminating broiler chicken carcasses when processed under routine commercial operations. (More)
AIMS A comparison of the prevalence of Salmonella in chicken carcasses with and without visible faecal contamination during commercial slaughter practice was made. The relationship between Enterobacteriaceae, coliform and Escherichia coli counts and Salmonella status was also evaluated to establish the likelihood of using these groups as 'index' organisms(More)
Chicken breasts with skin were packaged either in air, under vacuum or in modified atmospheres of (i) 30% CO2/70% N2 and (ii) 70% CO2/30% N2. After 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage at 4 degrees C, the samples were evaluated for spoilage microbial growth, odour and overall aspect. As expected, pseudomonads grew well in air or under vacuum, but growth was(More)
AIMS The response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of acetic acid concentration, spraying time and temperature on the reduction of Salmonella Hadar on poultry skin in a laboratory spraying process, and to identify the best conditions required to develop this operation. METHODS AND RESULTS A comparative analysis was carried out to(More)
Samples of chicken breasts with skin were treated with a 1% acetic acid solution or untreated and packaged in a 70% CO2/30% N2 modified atmosphere. Two different types of films were studied to establish their usefulness within the above pre-determined conditions. After 3, 7, 14 and 21 d of storage at 4 degrees C, the samples were evaluated for spoilage(More)
Numerical and experimental study of a Few-Mode (FM) Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) suitable for mode division multiplexing (MDM) is reported. Based on numerical simulations, a Few-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber (FM-EDF) has been designed to amplify four mode groups and to equally amplify LP11 and LP21 mode groups with gains greater than 20 dB and with a(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of refrigeration time and temperature on Salmonella cell numbers on inoculated chicken carcasses and their transfer to a plastic cutting board. METHODS AND RESULTS The survival of Salmonella on chicken skin and the transfer to a plastic cutting board when exposed to different refrigeration temperatures (2, 6 or 8 degrees(More)
AIMS The response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of operating variables (acetic acid concentration, spraying time and temperature) on the reduction of Escherichia coli populations on poultry breast skin in a laboratory showering process, as well as to identify the best conditions that are required to develop this operation. METHODS(More)
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