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Although feedforward inhibition onto Purkinje cells was first documented 40 years ago, we understand little of how inhibitory interneurons contribute to cerebellar function in behaving animals. Using a mouse line (PC-Deltagamma2) in which GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition is selectively removed from Purkinje cells, we examined how feedforward(More)
High-affinity extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are a prominent feature of cerebellar granule neurons and thalamic relay neurons. In both cell types, the presence of synaptic glomeruli would be expected to promote activation of these GABA(A)Rs, contributing to phasic spillover-mediated currents and tonic inhibition. However, the precise role of(More)
In mammals, identifying the contribution of specific neurons or networks to behavior is a key challenge. Here we describe an approach that facilitates this process by enabling the rapid modulation of synaptic inhibition in defined cell populations. Binding of zolpidem, a systemically active allosteric modulator that enhances the function of the GABAA(More)
Although the properties and trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) depend critically on associated transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) such as stargazin (gamma-2), no TARP has been described that can specifically regulate the important class of calcium-permeable (CP-) AMPARs. We examined the stargazin-related protein gamma-5,(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors, which underlie a majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS, associate with transmembrane proteins that modify their intracellular trafficking and channel gating. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) regulation by transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins.(More)
The kinetics of IPSCs influence many neuronal processes, such as the frequencies of oscillations and the duration of shunting inhibition. The subunit composition of recombinant GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) strongly affects the deactivation kinetics of GABA-evoked currents. However, for GABAergic synapses, the relationship between subunit composition and(More)
Microglial cells are believed to be one of the key elements in the development of the HIV-related neuropathology. Not only can microglial cells be productively infected by the virus, but they are also sensitive to viral proteins. Among them, the HIV-1 regulatory protein Tat, which was shown to have neurotoxic activity, is able to promote some(More)
Despite many studies on the functional expression of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), an exhaustive description of the long-term effects of nicotine (Nic) stimulation in cerebellar granules is still far to be completed. For this reason, we addressed the experiments stimulating cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) with Nic, focusing(More)
1. Our aim was to assess whether ATP-induced inward currents in microglia are due to a single or more than one purinergic receptor. The ATP dose-response curve showed two components, whose presence might be due to the activation of high and low affinity receptors. 2. The P2Z/P2X7 specific receptor agonist benzoylbenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP) and some P2 receptor(More)
L-Glutamic acid (L-Glu) and L-aspartic acid (L-Asp) activate several receptor subtypes, including metabotropic Glu receptors coupled to phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis. Quisqualic acid (Quis) is the most potent agonist of these receptors. There is evidence that activation of these receptors may cause a long lasting sensitization of neurons to(More)