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The Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) is a major tree species in African agroforestry systems. Butter extracted from its nuts offers an opportunity for sustainable development in Sudanian countries and an attractive potential for the food and cosmetics industries. The purpose of this study was to develop near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to(More)
The shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa, is one of the most economically and culturally important indigenous tree species in the Sudano-Sahelian region. Its seeds contain a vegetable fat, internationally known as shea butter, which is widely used in edible, cosmetic and pharmaceutical sectors. Based on samples from 456 trees distributed in 17 locations across(More)
Nine collaborating laboratories tested a combination of 23 seafood samples for volatile bases using an ammonia ion selective electrode. Results were reported as mg NH3/100 g fish, but the method reflected levels of both ammonia and trimethylamine, which permeated the ammonia membrane. The 23 samples were broken down into 8 blind duplicate pairs, 2 Youden(More)
The chemosusceptibility and genetic polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum populations from 48 patients hospitalized for malaria at the Hospital Principal in Dakar, Senegal were investigated during the 2002 malaria transmission season. Sixty-two percent of the isolates collected were from patients with severe malaria and 38% were from patients with mild(More)
A simple and rapid method using an ammonia ion-selective electrode (ISE) to measure volatile bases in fish is proposed. Accuracy and precision were determined with 5, 10, 20, and 30 ppm NH3 standard solutions. Ammonia values obtained with the method correlate strongly with total volatile basic nitrogen (r2 = 0.88). Recoveries of added ammonia to homogenized(More)
The morphological responses of seedlings of eight African provenances of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea tree or Karité) to imposed draught stress were compared under nursery experimental conditions. The potted seedlings were subjected to three different watering regimes (87 days after sowing): no water stress (100% of the field capacity, C), moderate water(More)
What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard(More)
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