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OBJECTIVE Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV appears to be the most common cause of HCC in Iran. To date, no study has been carried out on the HBV genotype in Iranian HCC patients. This study was undertaken to determine the HBV genotype in Iranian patients with HCC. (More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health concern in developing countries. HEV transmission occurs primarily by the fecal-oral route. It has also been reported that blood donors are potentially able to cause transfusion-associated hepatitis E in endemic areas. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HEV infection(More)
BACKGROUND Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the promoter region of the interleukin (IL)-10 genes have a role in determining hepatitis B virus (HBV) outcome. OBJECTIVES This study evaluates the correlation between HBV infection and SNP in IL-10 gene promoter. PATIENTS AND METHODS Ninety-six HBV-infected patients (32 chronic hepatitis B infection(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis A is one of the most frequently reported vaccine-preventable diseases throughout the world and remains endemic in many areas. Studies in various communities have shown that Hepatitis A virus (HAV) prevalence rises with age. The current data regarding hepatitis A epidemiology in Iran is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the(More)
Surface gene mutants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been reported in a variety of patient groups. Because of limited data regarding these mutations in patients with occult HBV infections; we aimed to determine these mutations among high-risk patients with occult HBV infection. The presence of HBV-DNA was determined in patients with isolated anti-HBc by(More)
BACKGROUND Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in blood donors is considered a potential threat for the safety of the blood supply, however conclusive studies on this issue are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the occult HBV infection in blood donors with isolated hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) living in the city of Arak, in the(More)
BACKGROUND T-helper (Th) lymphocyte cytokine production may be important in the immune pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Th1 cytokines such as; interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) are necessary for host antiviral immune responses, while Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) can inhibit the development of these effector mechanisms.(More)
This study explored the prevalence and related risk behaviors for hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among a sample of male injection drug users (IDUs) in Arak, Iran. One hundred male IDUs attending methadone maintenance clinics between April and September 2012 were enrolled and evaluated for HCV, HBV, and HIV(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to determine the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and occult HBV infection among injection drug users (IDUs) with isolated anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc). METHODS A total of 153 male IDUs were tested for anti-hepatitis B surface(More)
BACKGROUND One of the fundamental issues of infectious disease treatment is drug resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance rates and determine the risk factors related to multidrug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODS From March 2011 to September 2012, mycobacterial strains were(More)