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We have investigated the effect of intracranial injections of the amnestic anti-metabolite, 2-deoxygalactose, and antibodies to the neural cell adhesion molecule on retention of a one-trial passive avoidance task in chicks. Groups of chicks received bilateral intracranial injections of 10 mumol/hemisphere 2-deoxygalactose or 10 microliters/hemisphere(More)
Hippocampal functions, e.g. synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent behavior, are influenced by the circulating levels of ovarian steroids in adult, female rats. The mechanisms underlying this estradiol-dependent modulation, however, are poorly understood. One possibility is that estradiol alters N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor functioning in the(More)
Fluctuating estradiol levels in the adult, female rat modify the anatomical and functional organization of the hippocampal CA1 region. When systemic levels of estradiol are low, e.g., on estrus or in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, long-term synaptic potentiation is difficult to induce in vivo. However, little is known about the role of this ovarian hormone in(More)
In this paper, we present a spiking bidirectional associative memory (BAM) with temporal coding. The coding scheme used in artificial neural networks (ANN) known as “mean firing rate” cannot comply with the fast and complex computations occurring in the cortex. In biological neural networks the information is coded and processed based on the(More)
In this paper, we propose an ab initio two-stage protein secondary structure (PSS) prediction model through a novel framework of PSS transition site prediction by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Genetic Programming (GP). In the proposed classifier, protein sequences are encoded by new amino acid encoding schemes derived from genetic Codon(More)