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Our understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is currently limited by difficulties in obtaining live neurons from patients and the inability to model the sporadic form of the disease. It may be possible to overcome these challenges by reprogramming primary cells from patients into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we reprogrammed primary(More)
Defined transcription factors can induce epigenetic reprogramming of adult mammalian cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Although DNA factors are integrated during some reprogramming methods, it is unknown whether the genome remains unchanged at the single nucleotide level. Here we show that 22 human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell lines(More)
BACKGROUND Neural induction of human pluripotent stem cells often yields heterogeneous cell populations that can hamper quantitative and comparative analyses. There is a need for improved differentiation and enrichment procedures that generate highly pure populations of neural stem cells (NSC), glia and neurons. One way to address this problem is to(More)
Id genes encode helix-loop-helix proteins that inhibit transcription by forming inactive heterodimers with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins. bHLH proteins normally form either homodimers or heterodimers with other bHLH proteins and bind to a DNA sequence element activating transcription. Id-containing heterodimers are inactive because Id proteins lack(More)
Id genes encode members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription factors that inhibit transcription by forming inactive heterodimers with basic HLH (bHLH) proteins. There are four members of the Id gene family recognized in mammals, and the proteins they encode share homology primarily in their HLH domain. bHLH proteins typically form(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) carries a dismal prognosis. However, a range of survival times exists, and parameters that define prognostic groups may help to optimize treatment. To identify such prognostic groups, we analyzed tumor tissue from 110 cases of newly diagnosed GBM from two clinical protocols. Similar to other studies, we found no association of(More)
Members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of Id proteins have demonstrated roles in the regulation of differentiation and cell proliferation. Id proteins inhibit differentiation by HLH-mediated heterodimerization with basic HLH transcription factors. This blocks their sequence-specific binding to DNA and activation of target genes that are often(More)
The nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are a family of related enzymes which regulate the production of NO, a free radical gas implicated in a wide variety of biological processes. Vasodilation and increased tumor blood flow, increased vascular permeability, modulation of host tumoricidal activity, and free radical injury to tumor cells and adjacent normal(More)
A crucial limitation to our understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the inability to test hypotheses on live, patient-specific neurons. Patient autopsies are limited in supply and only reveal endpoints of disease. Rodent models harboring familial AD mutations lack important pathologies, and animal models have not been useful in modeling the sporadic(More)
We have identified and characterized a novel murine gene, Ectoderm-Neural Cortex-1 (ENC-1), that is an early and highly specific marker of neural induction in vertebrates. ENC-1, which encodes a kelch family related protein, is expressed during early gastrulation in the prospective neuroectodermal region of the epiblast and later in development throughout(More)