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The formation of lymph nodes is a complex process crucially controlled through triggering of LTbetaR on mesenchymal cells by LTalpha(1)beta(2) expressing lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. This leads to the induction of chemokines to attract more hematopoietic cells and adhesion molecules to retain them. In this study, we show that the extravasation of(More)
The lymphatic vasculature drains lymph fluid from the tissue spaces of most organs and returns it to the blood vasculature for recirculation. Before reaching the circulatory system, antigens and pathogens transported by the lymph are trapped by the lymph nodes. As proposed by Florence Sabin more than a century ago and recently validated, the mammalian(More)
The location of embryonic lymph node development is determined by the initial clustering of lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. Here we demonstrate that both the chemokine CXCL13 and the chemokine CCL21 attracted LTi cells at embryonic days 12.5-14.5 and that initial clustering depended exclusively on CXCL13. Retinoic acid (RA) induced early CXCL13(More)
T cells are imprinted to express tissue-specific homing receptors upon activation in tissue-draining lymph nodes, resulting in their migration to the site of Ag entry. Expression of gut-homing molecules alpha(4)beta(7) and CCR9 is induced by retinoic acid, a vitamin A metabolite produced by retinal dehydrogenases, which are specifically expressed in(More)
Non-hematopoietic lymph node stromal cells shape immunity by inducing MHC-I-dependent deletion of self-reactive CD8 + T cells and MHC-II-dependent anergy of CD4 + T cells. In this study, we show that MHC-II expression on lymph node stromal cells is additionally required for homeostatic maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and maintenance of immune(More)
The notion that the mucosal immune system maintains a tolerogenic response to harmless Ags while continually being challenged with microbial products seems an enigma. The aim of this study was to unravel mechanisms that are involved in regulating the development of tolerance under constant microbial pressure. The tolerogenic response to Ags administered via(More)
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