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Pigment cells enable fish to change their coloration. It has been recognized that fish color changes can be divided into two categories; one is a physiological color change, which is attributed to rapid motile responses of chromatophores, and the other is a morphological color change, which results from changes in the morphology and density of(More)
Microscopic observation of the skin of Plestiodon lizards, which have body stripes and blue tail coloration, identified epidermal melanophores and three types of dermal chromatophores: xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores. There was a vertical combination of these pigment cells, with xanthophores in the uppermost layer, iridophores in the(More)
Species-specific colors and patterns on animal body surfaces are determined primarily by neural-crest-derived pigment cells in the skin (chromatophores). However, even closely related species display widely differing patterns. These contrasting aspects of chromatophores (i.e., the fixed developmental control within species and extreme diversity among(More)
Many teleost fish can adapt their body color to a background color by changing the morphology and density of their skin pigment cells. Melanophore density in fish skin decreases during long-term adaptation to a white background. Although cell death, especially apoptosis, is thought to be involved in these morphological changes, there are no data clearly(More)
Kinetic modelling of the hydrolysis stage of municipal activated sludge, which is presumed to be the rate-limiting step in the anaerobic sludge digestion process, was studied by measuring methane production rate (MPR) in anaerobic batch tests. The MPR curves revealed that the degradable organic components in municipal sludge could be classified into two(More)
Cyclic nucleoside monophosphates (cNMPs) play key roles in many cellular regulatory processes, such as growth, differentiation, motility, and gene expression. Caged derivatives that can be activated by irradiation could be powerful tools for studying such diverse functions of intracellular second messengers, since the spatiotemporal dynamics of these(More)
The striped pigment patterns in the flanks of zebrafish result from chromatophores deep within the dermis or hypodermis, while superficial melanophores associated with dermal scales add a dark tint to the dorsal coloration. The responses of these chromatophores were compared during the long-term adaptation of zebrafish to a white or a black background. In(More)
In the reddish-violet parts of the skin of the diadema pseudochromis Pseudochromis diadema, we found novel dichromatic chromatophores with a reddish pigment and reflecting platelets. We named these novel cells 'erythro-iridophores'. In standard physiological solution, erythro-iridophores displayed two hues, red and dark violet when viewed with an optical(More)
A second form of somatolactin, somatolactin beta (SLbeta), was recently discovered in zebrafish (Danio rerio). This novel subtype of somatolactin is distantly related to somatolactin alpha (SLalpha) found in teleost species and is produced in a different region of the pituitary. To date, no physiological study of SLbeta has been reported. In order to study(More)
We have established a new culture system to study re-epithelialization during fish epidermal wound healing. In this culture system, fetal bovine serum (FBS) stimulates the epidermal outgrowth of multi-cellular layers from scale skin mounted on a coverslip, even when cell proliferation is blocked. The rate of outgrowth is about 0.4 mm/h, and at 3 h after(More)