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In a series of experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and human infants (Homo sapiens) were investigated as to whether they used experimenter-given cues when responding to object-choice tasks. Five conditions were used in different phases: the experimenter tapping on the correct object, gazing plus pointing, gazing(More)
Autotaxin (ATX) is a cancer-associated motogen that has multiple biological activities in vitro through the production of bioactive small lipids, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX and LPA are abundantly present in circulating blood. However, their roles in circulation remain to be solved. To uncover the physiological role of ATX we analyzed ATX knock-out(More)
A comparison of developmental patterns of white matter (WM) within the prefrontal region between humans and nonhuman primates is key to understanding human brain evolution. WM mediates complex cognitive processes and has reciprocal connections with posterior processing regions [1, 2]. Although the developmental pattern of prefrontal WM in macaques differs(More)
Reciprocity is considered to be an explanation for altruism toward nonkin. Although there have been many theoretical studies and reciprocity is arguably prevalent in humans, little experimental work has investigated the proximate mechanism of reciprocity in nonhuman animals. The authors tested whether pairs of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) would achieve(More)
Autotaxin (ATX) is a multifunctional phosphodiesterase originally isolated from melanoma cells as a potent cell motility-stimulating factor. ATX is identical to lysophospholipase D, which produces a bioactive phospholipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Although enhanced expression of ATX in various tumor tissues has been(More)
Lysophospholipids (LPs) such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are known to mediate various biological responses, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. To better understand the role of these lipids in mammalian early development, we applied whole-mount in situ hybridization techniques to E8.5 to E12.5(More)
Humans extensively help others altruistically, which plays an important role in maintaining cooperative societies. Although some nonhuman animals are also capable of helping others altruistically, humans are considered unique in our voluntary helping and our variety of helping behaviors. Many still believe that this is because only humans can understand(More)
BACKGROUND The evidence for culture in non-human animals has been growing incrementally over the past two decades. However, the ability for cumulative cultural evolution, with successive generations building on earlier achievements, in non-human animals remains debated. Faithful social learning of incremental improvements in technique is considered to be a(More)
Young human children at around 2 years of age fail to predict the correct location of an object when it is dropped from the top of an S-shape opaque tube. They search in the location just below the releasing point (Hood, 1995). This type of error, called a 'gravity bias', has recently been reported in dogs and monkeys. In the present study, we investigated(More)
In this study, I investigated chimpanzees' ability to recognize pictorial representations. Four adults and three juvenile chimpanzees were trained to choose images of photographs of flowers among 12 items belonging to four categories on a touch-sensitive monitor. As a generalization test, the following five types of images were presented: (1) novel(More)