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BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. V parahaemolyticus strains of a few specific serotypes, probably derived from a common clonal ancestor, have lately caused a pandemic of gastroenteritis. The organism is phylogenetically close to V cholerae, the causative agent of(More)
During acute viral infections such as influenza, humans often experience not only transient fever, but also prolonged fatigue or depressive feelings with a decrease in social activity for days or weeks. These feelings are thought to be due to neuroinflammation in the brain. Recent studies have suggested that chronic neuroinflammation is a precipitating(More)
BACKGROUND Reduced motivation and blunted decision-making are key features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients with MDD show abnormal decision-making when given negative feedback regarding a reward. The brain mechanisms underpinning this behavior remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the association between rapid decision-making with(More)
The differences in clinical characteristics between late- (LOS) and early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) are well documented. However, very little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these differences. Here, we compared morphometric abnormalities between patients with EOS and those with LOS. A total of 22 patients with LOS, 24 patients with EOS and(More)
BACKGROUND The hfq gene is conserved in a wide variety of bacteria and Hfq is involved in many cellular functions such as stress responses and the regulation of gene expression. It has also been reported that Hfq is involved in bacterial pathogenicity. However, it is not clear whether Hfq regulates virulence in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. To evaluate this, we(More)
Abnormal emotional processing is involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether the neural mechanism underlying this deficit is a trait characteristic of BD and MDD is unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the similarities and differences in processing of emotional stimuli between(More)
Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is one of the important virulence factors produced by H. pylori. VacA induces apoptotic cell death, which is potentiated by ammonia. VacA also causes cell death by mitochondrial damage, via signaling pathways that are not fully defined. Our aim was to determine whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with(More)
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is emerging worldwide because life-styles have changed to include much over-eating and less physical activity. The clinical and pathophysiological features of NASH are very different from those of HBV- and HCV-chronic liver diseases. The prognosis of NASH is worse among those with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) commonly develops in patients with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver caused by hepatitis-C-virus (HCV) infection. We prospectively studied whether irregular regeneration of hepatocytes is a risk factor for HCC in these patients. METHODS 242 patients were enrolled after liver biopsy and followed up by(More)