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Conditions that perturb the function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lead to an accumulation of proteins and subsequent induction of several responses, such as an increased expression of ER-resident chaperones involved in protein folding and activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These responses are mediated by a transmembrane kinase/ribonuclease,(More)
Stresses that impair the function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lead to an accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER. Under these conditions, the expression of a variety of genes involved in preventing the accumulation of the unfolded proteins is induced. Yeast Hrd1p is an ER stress-inducible ER membrane protein that acts as a ubiquitin ligase (E3)(More)
Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a low molecular weight fatty acid that has been used for treatment of urea cycle disorders in children, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia. It has been demonstrated recently that 4-PBA can act as a chemical chaperone by reducing the load of mutant or mislocated proteins retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) under(More)
It has been proposed that in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP), a ubiquitin ligase (E3) Parkin, which is involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), lacks E3 activity. The resulting accumulation of Parkin-associated endothelin receptor-like receptor (Pael-R), a substrate of Parkin, leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress,(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is defined as an accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has been demonstrated to promote the normal trafficking of the DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutant from the ER to the plasma membrane and to restore activity. We have reported(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a system by which proteins accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are retrotranslocated to the cytosol and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. HRD1 is expressed in brain neurons and acts as an ERAD ubiquitin ligase. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is processed into amyloid-beta peptides(More)
OBJECTIVE The prostacyclin analog, beraprost sodium (BPS), was examined for its potential to improve the symptoms of obesity-type diabetes (i.e., hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, histopathologic changes, and diabetic complications). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Obese Zucker rats, an experimental model of genetic obesity-induced type 2(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a terminal aromatic substituted fatty acid that has been used for the treatment of urea cycle disorders. 4-PBA possesses in vitro chemical chaperone activity and reduces the accumulation of Parkin-associated endothelin(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical, genetic, and neuroradiologic presentations of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) in a nationwide study in Japan. METHODS We documented clinical and neuroimaging data of a total of 69 subjects including 23 subjects from 10 families and 46 subjects in sporadic cases of IBGC in Japan. Mutational analysis of(More)