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We present here the global general circulation model IPSL-CM5 developed to study the long-term response of 1 the climate system to natural and anthropogenic forcings as part of the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison 2 Project (CMIP5). This model includes an interactive carbon cycle, a representation of tropospheric and stratospheric 3 chemistry,(More)
This paper proposes a novel method for assessment of muscle imbalance based on muscle synergy hypothesis and equilibrium point (EP) hypothesis of motor control. We explain in detail the method for extracting muscle synergies under the concept of agonist-antagonist (AA) muscle pairs and for estimating EP trajectories and endpoint stiffness of human upper(More)
Stroke rehabilitation requires intralimb coordination to achieve natural movement after recovery. Focusing on mechanical impedance by the coactivation of agonist muscles, we performed two experiments to assess the intralimb coordination of a post-stroke subject using two indices of the endpoint stiffness and muscle synergies. The results of the first(More)
Investigation of neural representation of movement planning has attracted the attention of neuroscientists, as it may reveal the sensorimotor transformation essential to motor control. The analysis of muscle synergies based on the activity of agonist-antagonist (AA) muscle pairs may provide insight into such transformations, especially for a reference frame(More)
We consider risk minimization problems for Markov decision processes. From a standpoint of making the risk of random reward variable at each time as small as possible, a risk measure is introduced using conditional value-at-risk for random immediate reward variables in Markov decision processes, under whose risk measure criteria the risk-optimal policies(More)
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