Learn More
Intracellular free Ca(2+) regulates diverse cellular processes, including membrane potential, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. To examine the cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of circadian rhythms, nucleus-targeted and untargeted cDNAs encoding a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent protein (cameleon) were transfected into organotypic(More)
Cytokines released from microglia mediate defensive responses in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are obscure. One proposed process is that nucleotide leakage or release from surrounding cells is sensed by metabotropic (P2Y) and ionotropic (P2X) purinergic receptors, which may trigger long-term intracellular Ca(2+) flux and tumor necrosis factor α(More)
OBJECTIVES The present study was initiated to examine the dietary intake, blood level and urinary concentration of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) among children in Korea, in comparison with the findings in their mothers. METHODS Peripheral blood, spot urine and 24-h food duplicate samples were collected in Busan, Korea, from 38 pairs of children (4-10 years(More)
The objective of the present study is to examine whether rice is still a leading source of cadmium (Cd) burden among general populations in Japan. For this purpose, 10 prefectures were selected from all over Japan (including the northern- and southern-most Hokkaido and Okinawa prefecture, respectively). Cadmium levels in urine of never-smoking women(More)
CNS activity is generally coupled to the vigilance state, being primarily active during wakefulness and primarily inactive during deep sleep. During periods of high neuronal activity, a significant volume of oxygen is used to maintain neuronal membrane potentials, which subsequently produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutathione, a major(More)
This study was initiated to examine accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and other metals in kidney and liver in autopsy samples and to compare the levels between those in an area with heavy Cd exposure and those in no-polluted areas in Japan. Data on Cd and other metals in kidney (cortex and medulla) and liver in 95 cases (87 women and eight men; the exposed) in a(More)
Through literature survey, paired data on cadmium (Cd) and beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)-MG) levels (as corrected for creatinine concentration) in urine (i.e., Cd-Ucr and beta(2)-MG-Ucr) among Japanese populations were available for 32 groups of men and 58 groups of women in 12 publications. Plotting of the Cd-Ucr and beta(2)-MG-Ucr data for the groups of(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was initiated to investigate the extents of biological variations in cadmium and three common tubular dysfunction marker levels in blood and urine through repeated sampling. METHODS A 12-month survey and a 10-week survey were conducted in an area with no known cadmium pollution. In the 12-month survey, five adult women offered urine(More)
The present study was initiated to assess current level of general population exposure to lead (Pb) in terms of Pb in urine (Pb-U). For this purpose, spot urine samples were collected from 2,332 never-smoking adult women in 10 areas all-over Japan, and were subjected to analysis for Pb-U by graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA). Data on cadmium in urine(More)
Daily behaviors are strongly dominated by internally generated circadian rhythms, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In mammals, photoentrainment of behaviors to light-dark cycles involves signaling from both intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells and classic photoreceptor pathways to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). How classic(More)