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Dendritic cells (DCs) induce immunity and immunological tolerance as APCs. It has been shown that DCs secreting IL-10 induce IL-10(+) Tr1-type regulatory T (Treg) cells, whereas Foxp3-positive Treg cells are expanded from naive CD4(+) T cells by coculturing with mature DCs. However, the regulatory mechanism of expansion of Foxp3(+) Treg cells by DCs has not(More)
The minimization of a genome is necessary to identify experimentally the minimal gene set that contains only those genes that are essential and sufficient to sustain a functioning cell. Recent developments in genetic techniques have made it possible to generate bacteria with a markedly reduced genome. We developed a simple system for formation of markerless(More)
Bacillus circulans chitinase A1 (ChiA1) has a deep substrate-binding cleft on top of its (beta/alpha)8-barrel catalytic domain and an interaction between the aromatic residues in this cleft and bound oligosaccharide has been suggested. To study the roles of these aromatic residues, especially in crystalline-chitin hydrolysis, site-directed mutagenesis of(More)
Rhizobium sp. strain AC100, which is capable of degrading carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate), was isolated from soil treated with carbaryl. This bacterium hydrolyzed carbaryl to 1-naphthol and methylamine. Carbaryl hydrolase from the strain was purified to homogeneity, and its N-terminal sequence, molecular mass (82 kDa), and enzymatic properties were(More)
Recovery in central nervous system disorders is hindered by the limited ability of the vertebrate central nervous system to regenerate lost cells, replace damaged myelin, and re-establish functional neural connections. Cell transplantation to repair central nervous system disorders is an active area of research, with the goal of reducing functional(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy in adult rat completely transected spinal cord of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). BMSC were infected with adenovirus vectors carrying β-galactosidase (AxCALacZ) or BDNF (AxCABDNF) genes. The T8 segment of spinal(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multipotential protein that acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, pituitary hormone, immunoregulator, and mitogen. To elucidate function of MIF in spinal cord injury, we examined expression of MIF after compression-induced spinal cord injury using Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization and(More)
Osteopontin (OPN) is expressed in many tissues during inflammatory responses. After spinal cord injury, microglia expresses OPN at the site of injury during the early to subacute stages. However, the function of OPN in spinal cord injury is not well understood. This study examines the responses of OPN knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice to spinal cord(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that play pivotal roles in initiating immune responses. However, DC maturation is usually strongly restricted by the stromal microenvironment, especially in non-lymphoid tissues, such as skin and mucosa. Although suppression of DC maturation by stromal cells has been well documented, the(More)
A carbaryl hydrolase gene (cahA) encoded on the plasmid pRC1 in Arthrobacter sp. RC100 was cloned and sequenced. The entire region of the deduced amino acid sequence was found to be homologous to that of an amidase family. Parts of the consensus sequences of the amidase gene have been identified in CahA from strain RC100. CahA was overexpressed in(More)