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The molecular motor kinesin travels processively along a microtubule in a stepwise manner. Here we have studied the chemomechanical coupling of the hydrolysis of ATP to the mechanical work of kinesin by analysing the individual stepwise movements according to the directionality of the movements. Kinesin molecules move primarily in the forward direction and(More)
Kinesin is a stepping motor that successively produces forward and backward 8-nm steps along microtubules. Under physiological conditions, the steps powering kinesin's motility are biased in one direction and drive various biological motile processes. The physical mechanism underlying the unidirectional bias of the kinesin steps is not fully understood.(More)
Single molecule measurements have allowed series of kinetic events of biomolecules to be monitored without interruption. The stepwise movement of molecular motors was measured and analyzed in relation to the hydrolysis reaction of ATP. In the case of kinesin, forward and backward steps occurred stochastically at the same chemical state. The directional(More)
Kinesin-1 is an ATP-driven molecular motor that "walks" along a microtubule by working two heads in a "hand-over-hand" fashion. The stepping motion is well-coordinated by intermolecular interactions between the kinesin head and microtubule, and is sensitively changed by applied forces. We demonstrate that hydrostatic pressure works as an inhibitory action(More)
We describe the construction and characterization of a laser-line-scanning microscope capable of detection of broad fluorescence spectra with a resolution of 1 nm. A near-infrared femtosecond pulse train at 800 nm was illuminated on a line (one lateral axis, denoted as X axis) in a specimen by a resonant scanning mirror oscillating at 7.9 kHz, and total(More)
Movement is a fundamental characteristic of all living things. This biogenic function that is attributed to the molecular motors such as kinesin, dynein and myosin. Molecular motors generate forces by using chemical energy derived from the hydrolysis reaction of ATP molecules. Despite a large number of studies on this topic, the chemomechanical energy(More)
The bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that converts an ion flux to the rotation of a helical flagellar filament. Counterclockwise rotation of the filaments allows them to join in a bundle and propel the cell forward. Loss of motility can be caused by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and solvation. Hydrostatic pressure is also a(More)
Aquifex aeolicus is a hyperthermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing and carbon-fixing bacterium that can grow at temperatures up to 95 °C. A. aeolicus has an almost complete set of flagellar genes that are conserved in bacteria. Here we observed that A. aeolicus has polar flagellum and can swim with a speed of 90 μm s(-1) at 85 °C. We expressed the A. aeolicus mot(More)
Hydrostatic pressure is one of the physical stimuli that characterize the environment of living matter. Many microorganisms thrive under high pressure and may even physically or geochemically require this extreme environmental condition. In contrast, application of pressure is detrimental to most life on Earth; especially to living organisms under ambient(More)
We performed in vitro assays to visualize the effects of pressure on the filamentous structure of microtubules. Taxol-stabilized microtubules were tethered to kinesin motors on the observation window of a high-pressure chamber. When pressure was applied to the sample solution, all of the microtubules started to shorten from both ends. The length changes(More)