Masayoshi Nishiyama

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The molecular motor kinesin travels processively along a microtubule in a stepwise manner. Here we have studied the chemomechanical coupling of the hydrolysis of ATP to the mechanical work of kinesin by analysing the individual stepwise movements according to the directionality of the movements. Kinesin molecules move primarily in the forward direction and(More)
Kinesin is a stepping motor that successively produces forward and backward 8-nm steps along microtubules. Under physiological conditions, the steps powering kinesin's motility are biased in one direction and drive various biological motile processes. The physical mechanism underlying the unidirectional bias of the kinesin steps is not fully understood.(More)
Movement is a fundamental characteristic of all living things. This biogenic function that is attributed to the molecular motors such as kinesin, dynein and myosin. Molecular motors generate forces by using chemical energy derived from the hydrolysis reaction of ATP molecules. Despite a large number of studies on this topic, the chemomechanical energy(More)
We describe the construction and characterization of a laser-line-scanning microscope capable of detection of broad fluorescence spectra with a resolution of 1 nm. A near-infrared femtosecond pulse train at 800 nm was illuminated on a line (one lateral axis, denoted as X axis) in a specimen by a resonant scanning mirror oscillating at 7.9 kHz, and total(More)
Single molecule measurements have allowed series of kinetic events of biomolecules to be monitored without interruption. The stepwise movement of molecular motors was measured and analyzed in relation to the hydrolysis reaction of ATP. In the case of kinesin, forward and backward steps occurred stochastically at the same chemical state. The directional(More)
Kinesin-1 is an ATP-driven molecular motor that "walks" along a microtubule by working two heads in a "hand-over-hand" fashion. The stepping motion is well-coordinated by intermolecular interactions between the kinesin head and microtubule, and is sensitively changed by applied forces. We demonstrate that hydrostatic pressure works as an inhibitory action(More)
The bacterial flagellar motor is a reversible rotary machine that rotates a left-handed helical filament, allowing bacteria to swim toward a more favorable environment. The direction of rotation reverses from counterclockwise (CCW) to clockwise (CW), and vice versa, in response to input from the chemotaxis signaling circuit. CW rotation is normally caused(More)
The bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that converts an ion flux to the rotation of a helical flagellar filament. Counterclockwise rotation of the filaments allows them to join in a bundle and propel the cell forward. Loss of motility can be caused by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and solvation. Hydrostatic pressure is also a(More)
We develop a highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor with a fundamental resonance frequency of 170 MHz. A naked AT-cut quartz plate of 9.7 microm thick is set in a sensor cell. Its shear vibration is excited by the line wire, and the vibration signals are detected by the other line wire, achieving the noncontacting measurement of the(More)
Hydrostatic pressure is one of the physical stimuli that characterize the environment of living matter. Many microorganisms thrive under high pressure and may even physically or geochemically require this extreme environmental condition. In contrast, application of pressure is detrimental to most life on Earth; especially to living organisms under ambient(More)