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A small GTPase, Rac1, plays a key role in rice (Oryza sativa) innate immunity as part of a complex of regulatory proteins. Here, we used affinity column chromatography to identify rice RACK1 (for Receptor for Activated C-Kinase 1) as an interactor with Rac1. RACK1 functions in various mammalian signaling pathways and is involved in hormone signaling and(More)
The assembly of ring-like structures, composed of FtsZ proteins (i.e. the Z ring), is the earliest and most essential process in bacterial cytokinesis. It has been shown that this process is directly regulated by the FtsZ-binding proteins, FtsA, ZapA, and EzrA, in Bacillus subtilis. In this study, protein complexes that are involved in Z-ring formation were(More)
Teichoic acids and acidic capsular polysaccharides are major anionic cell wall polymers (APs) in many bacteria, with various critical cell functions, including maintenance of cell shape and structural integrity, charge and cation homeostasis, and multiple aspects of pathogenesis. We have identified the widespread LytR-Cps2A-Psr (LCP) protein family, of(More)
Bacillus subtilis YlqF belongs to the Era/Obg subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins and is essential for bacterial growth. Here we report that YlqF participates in the late step of 50 S ribosomal subunit assembly. YlqF was co-fractionated with the 50 S subunit, depending on the presence of noncleavable GTP analog. Moreover, the GTPase activity of YlqF was(More)
The Bacillus subtilis structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein is a member of a large family of proteins involved in chromosome organization. We found that SMC is a moderately abundant protein ( approximately 1000 dimers per cell). In vivo cross-linking and immunoprecipitation assays revealed that SMC binds to many regions on the chromosome.(More)
Water availability is a critical determinant for the growth and ecological distribution of terrestrial plants. Although some xerophytes are unique regarding their highly developed root architecture and the successful adaptation to arid environments, virtually nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this adaptation. Here, we report(More)
In plants, drought stress coupled with high levels of illumination causes not only dehydration of tissues, but also oxidative damage resulting from excess absorbed light energy. In this study, we analyzed the regulation of electron transport under drought/high-light stress conditions in wild watermelon, a xerophyte that shows strong resistance to this type(More)
Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a xerophyte native to the Kalahari Desert, Africa. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in this plant, we examined changes in the proteome in response to water deficit. Wild watermelon leaves showed decreased transpiration and a concomitant increase in leaf temperature under water deficit(More)
The human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), known as the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), is normally expressed in the liver and to a lesser extent in the kidney proximal tubules. In these tissues MRP2 specifically localizes to the apical membrane. The construction of MRP2 fused to the green fluorescent protein,(More)
The reversible associations between the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) and the core complexes of PSI and PSII are essential for the photoacclimation mechanisms in higher plants. Two types of Chls, Chl a and Chl b, both function in light harvesting and are required for the biogenesis of the photosystems. Chl b-less plants have been studied to determine(More)