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We succeeded in rescuing infectious influenza virus by transfecting cells with RNAs derived from specific recombinant DNAs. RNA corresponding to the neuraminidase (NA) gene of influenza A/WSN/33 (WSN) virus was transcribed in vitro from plasmid DNA and, following the addition of purified influenza virus RNA polymerase complex, was transfected into MDBK(More)
The influenza virus NS1 protein was shown to stimulate translation of the M1 protein. M-CAT RNA, which contains the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene and the terminal noncoding sequence of segment 7 (coding for the M1 and M2 proteins), was ribonucleoprotein transfected into clone 76 cells expressing the influenza virus RNA polymerase and(More)
A system is described that allows use of recombinant DNA technology to modify the genome of influenza virus, a negative-strand RNA virus, and to engineer vectors for the expression of foreign genes. Recombinant RNA is expressed from plasmid DNA in which the coding sequence of the influenza A virus NS gene is replaced with that of the chloramphenicol(More)
Appropriate RNAs are transcribed and amplified and proteins are expressed after transfection into cells of in vitro-reconstituted RNA-protein complexes and infection with influenza virus as the helper. This system permits us to study the signals involved in transcription of influenza virus RNAs. For the analysis we used a plasmid-derived RNA containing the(More)
The packaging mechanism of segmented RNA viruses has not been well studied. Specifically, it has not been clear whether influenza A viruses package only eight RNA segments or whether virus particles contain more than eight segments. Using a newly developed ribonucleoprotein (RNP) transfection method, we engineered an influenza virus which must contain nine(More)
In the influenza H5N1 virus incident in Hong Kong in 1997, viruses that are closely related to H5N1 viruses initially isolated in a severe outbreak of avian influenza in chickens were isolated from humans, signaling the possibility of an incipient pandemic. However, it was not possible to prepare a vaccine against the virus in the conventional embryonated(More)
We have analyzed the mechanism by which the matrix (M1) protein associates with cellular membranes during influenza A virus assembly. Interaction of the M1 protein with the viral hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) glycoprotein was extensively analyzed by using wild-type and transfectant influenza viruses as well as recombinant vaccinia viruses(More)
More than 40 protein species including RNA polymerase were found to be phosphorylated in Escherichia coli on analyses of 32P-labeled cell lysates by single and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The protein species and the level of phosphorylation varied depending on the cell growth phase. With [gamma-32P]ATP as a substrate, cell(More)
Influenza A and B viruses have not been shown to form reassortants. It had been assumed that the lack of genotypic mixing between influenza virus types reflected differences in polymerase and packaging specificity. In this study, we show that an influenza A virus polymerase transcribes and replicates a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene flanked by(More)