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CspA was originally found as the major cold-shock protein in Escherichia coli, consisting of 70-amino-acid residues. It forms a beta-barrel structure with five anti-parallel beta-strands and functions as an RNA chaperone. Its dramatic but transient induction upon cold shock is regulated at the level of transcription, mRNA stability and translation.(More)
When exponentially growing Escherichia coli cell cultures were transferred from 37 degrees C to 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C, the production of a 7.4-kDa cytoplasmic protein (CS7.4) was prominently induced. The rate of CS7.4 production reached 13% of total protein synthesis within 1-1.5 hr after a shift to 10 degrees C and subsequently dropped to a lower(More)
CspA, the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli, is dramatically induced during the cold-shock response. The amino acid sequence of CspA shows 43% identity to the "cold-shock domain" of the eukaryotic Y-box protein family, which interacts with RNA and DNA to regulate their functions. Here, we demonstrate that CspA binds to RNA as a chaperone. First,(More)
The gene for CspA, the major cold-shock protein of Escherichia coli is known to be dramatically induced upon temperature downshift. Here, we report that three-base substitutions around the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in the 159-base 5'-untranslated region of the cspA mRNA stabilizes the mRNA 150-fold, resulting in constitutive expression of cspA at 37 degrees(More)
In order to analyse the mechanism of cold shock induction of CspA, a major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli, deletion analysis of the cspA gene was carried out. It was found that (i) the AT-rich sequence (-47 to -38) upstream of the cspA -35 region may act as the UP element playing a crucial role in cspA transcription at both 37 degrees C and 15(More)
Adaptation to environmental stresses, such as temperature fluctuation, is essential for the survival of all living organisms. Cellular responses in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes to high temperature include the synthesis of a set of highly conserved proteins known as the heat shock proteins. In contrast to the heat shock response, adaptation to low(More)
Sequence-specific 1H and 15N resonance assignments have been determined for the major cold shock protein (CspA) from Escherichia coli with recently developed three-dimensional triple-resonance NMR experiments. By use of these assignments, five antiparallel beta-strands were identified from analysis of NMR data. Strands 1-4 have a classical 3-2-1-4 Greek key(More)
Escherichia coli contains a large CspA family, CspA to CspI. Here, we demonstrate that E. coli is highly protected against cold-shock stress, as these CspA homologues existed at approximately a total of two million molecules per cell at low temperature and growth defect was not observed until four csp genes (cspA, cspB, cspE and cspG) were deleted. The(More)
The cold-shock response of Escherichia coli describes a specific pattern of gene expression in response to abrupt shifts to lower temperatures. This pattern includes the induction of cold-shock proteins, synthesis of proteins involved in transcription and translation, and repression of heat-shock proteins. The identified cold-shock proteins are involved in(More)
A 70-kDa protein was specifically induced in Escherichia coli when the culture temperature was shifted from 37 to 15 degrees C. The protein was identified to be the product of the deaD gene (reassigned csdA) encoding a DEAD-box protein. Furthermore, after the shift from 37 to 15 degrees C, CsdA was exclusively localized in the ribosomal fraction and became(More)