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We report a simple method, using p53 suppression and nontransforming L-Myc, to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with episomal plasmid vectors. We generated human iPSCs from multiple donors, including two putative human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-homozygous donors who match ∼20% of the Japanese population at major HLA loci; most iPSCs are(More)
It has long been believed that the retina of mature mammals is incapable of regeneration. In this study, using the N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity model of adult rat retina, we observed that some Müller glial cells were stimulated to proliferate in response to a toxic injury and produce bipolar cells and rod photoreceptors. Although these newly produced(More)
We previously identified a stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA), which induces differentiation of neural cells, including midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) dopaminergic neurons, from mouse embryonic stem cells. We report here that SDIA induces efficient neural differentiation also in primate embryonic stem cells. Induced neurons(More)
Regeneration in the mammalian CNS is severely limited. Unlike in the chick, current models hold that retinal neurons are never regenerated. Previously we demonstrated that, in the adult mammalian retina, Müller glia dedifferentiate and produce retinal cells, including photoreceptors, after acute neurotoxic injury in vivo. However, the number of newly(More)
Retinal precursor cells give rise to six types of neurons and one type of glial cell during development, and this process is controlled by multiple basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes. However, the precise mechanism for specification of retinal neuronal subtypes, particularly horizontal neurons and photoreceptors, remains to be determined. Here, we examined(More)
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited human eye disease resulting in night blindness and visual defects. It is well known that the disease is caused by rod photoreceptor degeneration; however, it remains incurable, due to the unavailability of disease-specific human photoreceptor cells for use in mechanistic studies and drug screening. We(More)
PURPOSE To produce lens cells from primate embryonic stem (ES) cells in a reproducible, controlled manner. METHODS Cynomologus monkey ES cells were induced to differentiate by stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA). The lentoids produced by this treatment were processed for immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analysis. The effect of varying the(More)
We previously reported a technique for generating retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) and putative photoreceptors from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we tested whether our procedure can promote retinal differentiation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Treating iPSCs with Wnt and Nodal antagonists in suspension culture induced(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes severe visual impairment due in part to age-dependent impairment of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). It has been suggested that autologous human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) may represent a useful cell source for the generation of graft RPE. We generated hiPSC-derived RPE (hiPSC-RPE) cell sheets(More)
Embryonic retina is one of the possible cell sources that will repair degenerated retina such as retinitis pigmentosa. Retinal progenitor cells isolated from embryonic rats could be cultured and expanded in serum free medium with both epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. We analyzed the properties of two different retinal progenitor(More)