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We report a simple method, using p53 suppression and nontransforming L-Myc, to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with episomal plasmid vectors. We generated human iPSCs from multiple donors, including two putative human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-homozygous donors who match ∼20% of the Japanese population at major HLA loci; most iPSCs are(More)
It has long been believed that the retina of mature mammals is incapable of regeneration. In this study, using the N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity model of adult rat retina, we observed that some Müller glial cells were stimulated to proliferate in response to a toxic injury and produce bipolar cells and rod photoreceptors. Although these newly produced(More)
We previously identified a stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA), which induces differentiation of neural cells, including midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) dopaminergic neurons, from mouse embryonic stem cells. We report here that SDIA induces efficient neural differentiation also in primate embryonic stem cells. Induced neurons(More)
Regeneration in the mammalian CNS is severely limited. Unlike in the chick, current models hold that retinal neurons are never regenerated. Previously we demonstrated that, in the adult mammalian retina, Müller glia dedifferentiate and produce retinal cells, including photoreceptors, after acute neurotoxic injury in vivo. However, the number of newly(More)
PURPOSE In a previous study it has been shown that adult rat hippocampus-derived neural stem cells can be successfully transplanted into neonatal retinas, where they differentiate into neurons and glia, but they cannot be transplanted into adult retinas. In the current study, the effect of mechanical injury to the adult retina on the survival and(More)
Retinal precursor cells give rise to six types of neurons and one type of glial cell during development, and this process is controlled by multiple basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes. However, the precise mechanism for specification of retinal neuronal subtypes, particularly horizontal neurons and photoreceptors, remains to be determined. Here, we examined(More)
PURPOSE To produce lens cells from primate embryonic stem (ES) cells in a reproducible, controlled manner. METHODS Cynomologus monkey ES cells were induced to differentiate by stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA). The lentoids produced by this treatment were processed for immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analysis. The effect of varying the(More)
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited human eye disease resulting in night blindness and visual defects. It is well known that the disease is caused by rod photoreceptor degeneration; however, it remains incurable, due to the unavailability of disease-specific human photoreceptor cells for use in mechanistic studies and drug screening. We(More)
We previously reported a technique for generating retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) and putative photoreceptors from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we tested whether our procedure can promote retinal differentiation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Treating iPSCs with Wnt and Nodal antagonists in suspension culture induced(More)
We show that iris tissue in the adult rat eye, which is embryonically related to the neural retina, can generate cells expressing differentiated neuronal antigens. In addition, the Crx gene transfer induced the specific antigens for rod photoreceptors in the iris-derived cells, which was not seen in the adult hippocampus-derived neural stem cells. Our(More)