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While human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-2 has not been reported to be associated with such malignant leukemias. HTLV-1 Tax1 oncoprotein transforms a rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) to form multiple large colonies in soft agar, and this activity is much greater than that of(More)
The monoclonal antibody 2D5 neutralized vaccinia virus by preventing penetration of the virus and reacting with VP23-29K. The conformation of the VP23-29K was maintained by a disulfide bond(s), and the 2D5mAb reacted stronger with the nonreduced 23-kDa form than with the reduced 29-kDa form. We selected several escape mutants. Sequences of the A17L genes,(More)
Cells can undergo two alternative fates following exposure to environmental stress: they either induce apoptosis or inhibit apoptosis and then repair the stress-induced alterations. These processes minimize cell loss and prevent the survival of cells with aberrant DNA and protein alterations. These two alternative fates are partly controlled by stress(More)
BACKGROUND Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), whereas HTLV type 2 (HTLV-2), is not associated with ATL or any other leukemia. HTLV-1 encodes the transforming gene tax1, whose expression in an interleukin (IL)-2-dependent T-cell line (CTLL-2) induces IL-2-independent growth. RESULTS In this(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) but not HTLV-2 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and the distinct pathogenicity of these two closely related viruses is thought to stem from the distinct biological functions of the respective transforming proteins, HTLV-1 Tax1 and HTLV-2 Tax2. In this study, we demonstrate that Tax1 but not Tax2 interacts(More)
BACKGROUND Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), whereas its relative HTLV-2 is not associated with any malignancies including ATL. HTLV-1 Tax1 transformed a T-cell line from interleukin (IL)-2-dependent growth to IL-2-independent growth, with an activity that was much more potent in comparison to(More)
A vaccinia virus structural protein responsible for infection was identified by monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Two mAbs (2D5 and 8C2) neutralized the virus at a dilution of about 10(5). The 2D5 mAb reacted with VP29K under standard immunoblotting conditions and with a 23-kDa protein when virus was dissociated under nonreducing conditions. The 8C2 mAb reacted(More)
Treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) converted the vaccinia virus strain IHD-J into particles of two types: (i) ghosts which possessed a thin-membrane vesicle derived from basement part of the virus membrane with attached lateral bodies and a membranous structure derived from the core wall and (ii) aggregates of a DNA-nucleoprotein eluted from the(More)
BACKGROUND Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 encoded Tax1 oncoprotein activates the transcription of genes involved in cell growth and anti-apoptosis through the NF-kappaB pathway, and is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ATL. While Tax1 expression is(More)
Using Vero cells, we isolated a virus (NII561-2000) from a cerebrospinal fluid specimen of a 1-year-old girl with Reye syndrome. The determined amino acid sequence of the virus indicated that the isolate was a human parechovirus (HPeV), a member of Picornaviridae. Neutralization test showed that the NII561-2000 virus had distinct antigenicity to HPeV-1,(More)