Masatsugu Chikahira

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Few outbreaks of the serious enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which affect the central nervous system (CNS), had been reported in Japan before 2000. During June through August 2000, a patient died of pulmonary edema caused by brainstem encephalitis accompanied by EV71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and many patients complicated by serious(More)
We examined 976 sika deer serum samples, 159 liver tissue samples and 88 stool samples collected from 16 prefectures in Japan, and performed ELISA and RT-PCR assays to detect antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA, respectively. Although 25 (2.6%) of 976 samples were positive for anti-HEV IgG, the antibody titers were very low. The OD values ranged between 0.018 and(More)
In order to investigate the mutagenic effects of nitrogen oxides ( NOx ), induced mutations and chromosome aberrations were examined using primary lung cells obtained from rats exposed in vivo to NO2 and NO. Rats were exposed to nitrogen oxide gases at concentrations of 8-27 ppm for 3 h in a stainless steel chamber. Over the range 15-27 ppm, NO2(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of diagnostic methods for dual-infected cases of human adenoviruses (AdVs) and coxsackieviruses type B (CBs). For this purpose, 100 nasopharyngeal samples from patients with acute exudative tonsillitis and clinically suspected AdV infection were analyzed. Using PCR and real-time PCR techniques for AdVs(More)
We developed a new diagnostic method of subgenus (Sub) B adenovirus (Ad) in clinical samples using non-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequences of the conserved hexon-coding region of representative strains of eight serotypes (3, 7, 11, 14, 16, 21, 34 and 35) of Sub B Ad were heterogeneous. In order to distinguish Ad serotype 3 (Ad 3) and Ad 7 from(More)
The prevalence of measles antibody in Japan was surveyed with a newly developed gelatin particle agglutination (PA) test, and the results compared with those of the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The two age-distribution curves of the PA antibody-positive rates at ≥1:8 and ≥1:32 were almost the same in all the age groups, except the(More)
Adenovirus types 1, 2, and 3 can usually be isolated in only a short time, although occasionally it may take longer. This phenomenon has been explained empirically as being due to the viral load in the sample, although to date there has been no experimental confirmation of this. In this study we therefore tried to establish a correlation between the(More)
A total of 334 diarrheal fecal samples (from 210 males and 124 females) collected in Kathmandu, Nepal, were studied for various kinds of enteropathogens. Overall, 33% (111/334) fecal samples were positive for one or more enteropathogens. There was no difference in detection rates between males and females. Enteropathogen detection rates in summer, winter,(More)
Subtypes of stx1 and stx2 in 45 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from cattle were investigated by PCR. Only subtype stx1a was detected among all the stx1-positive strains. The major stx2 subtype was stx2a followed by stx2d, stx2c, stx2b, and stx2g in decreasing order of frequency. stx2c was found in strains of serotypes O157(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is known to cause encephalitis, but several reports have identified EV71 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We detected EV71 in CSF from a 20-month-old infant. The patient was diagnosed with brainstem encephalitis associated with HFMD. The clinical features of the(More)