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The macaque inferotemporal (IT) cortex, which serves as the storehouse of visual long-term memory, consists of two distinct but mutually interconnected areas: area TE (TE) and area 36 (A36). In the present study, we tested whether memory encoding is put forward at this stage, i.e., whether association between the representations of different but(More)
A number of studies have shown that the perirhinal (PRh) cortex, which is part of the medial temporal lobe memory system, plays an important role in declarative long-term memory. The PRh cortex contains neurons that represent visual long-term memory. The aim of the present study is to characterize the anatomical organization of forward projections that(More)
Patients with damage to primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual performance on laboratory visual tasks despite denial of conscious seeing (blindsight) [1]. After a period of recovery, which suggests a role for plasticity [2], visual sensitivity higher than chance is observed in humans and monkeys for simple luminance-defined stimuli, grating(More)
The macaque inferotemporal cortex, which is involved in encoding and retrieval of visual long-term memory, consists of two distinct but mutually interconnected areas: area TE (TE) and area 36 (A36). In the present study, we compared delay-period activities of the two subdivisions in terms of their signal contents. We recorded single-unit activities from TE(More)
In the present study, we used a dry maze task to assess the spatial learning ability of C57BL/6N and BALB/cA mice besides the water maze task. In Experiment 1, the performance of C57BL/6N and BALB/cA mice in the water maze task and dry maze task were investigated. In the former task, the mice had to learn the position of a hidden platform submerged below(More)
Interleukin-1beta at doses of 32 and 100 ng/side, injected bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus of rats, significantly increased the working memory errors in a three-panel runway setup, whereas interleukin-1beta at doses affecting working memory errors had no effect on the number of errors in the first trial or the latency. The increase in working memory(More)
1. Antidromic activation from the thalamus and the superior colliculus was used to identify the axonal projections of neurons in the substantia nigra. 2. Up to 43% of the nigral neurons studied in individual animals had branching axons that could be activated antidromically from both the ipsilateral ventromedial thalamus and the ipsilateral superior(More)
Monkeys with unilateral lesions of the primary visual cortex (V1) can make saccades to visual stimuli in their contralateral ("affected") hemifield, but their sensitivity to luminance contrast is reduced. We examined whether the effects of V1 lesions were restricted to vision or included later stages of visual-oculomotor processing. Monkeys with unilateral(More)
Previous reports on 'blindsight' have shown that some patients with lesions of the primary visual cortex (V1) could localize visual targets in their scotoma with hand and/or eye movements without visual awareness. A role of the retino-tectal pathway on residual vision has been proposed but the direct evidence for this still remains sparse. To examine this(More)