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The increasing use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about their potential risks to human health. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles can cross the placenta barrier in pregnant mice and cause neurotoxicity in their offspring, but a more detailed understanding of the effects of nanoparticles on pregnant animals remains elusive. Here, we show that(More)
The Okinawan sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni is known to cause cases of severe stinging. We isolated P. semoni toxins 60A and 60B (PsTX-60A and PsTX-60B; ca. 60 kDa) as the major toxins from the isolated nematocysts of this species for the first time. PsTX-60A and PsTX-60B showed lethal toxicity to the shrimp Palaemon paucidence when administered via(More)
We study D-branes in SU (2) WZW model by means of the boundary state techniques. We realize the " fuzzy sphere " configuration of multiple D0-branes as the boundary state with the insertion of suitable Wilson line. By making use of the path-integral representation we show that this boundary state preserves the appropriate boundary conditions and leads to(More)
Ureaplasma spp. is detected in the urogenital tract, including the vagina, cervix, chorioamnion, and placenta. Their colonization is associated with histologic chorioamnionitis (CAM), often observed in placentas from preterm delivery. We isolated Ureaplasma spp. from 63 preterm placentas among 151 specimens, which were delivered at <32 wk of gestation. Of(More)
The Okinawan sea anemone Actineria villosa causes severe cases of stinging. We isolated the 60 kDa A. villosa toxin (AvTX-60A) as the major toxin from the isolated nematocysts of this species. AvTX-60A showed fatal toxicity to mice with intraperitoneal injection at a minimum lethal dose of less than 250 microg/kg. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the hypothesis that ceftriaxone preconditioning ameliorates brain damage in neonatal animals through glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) upregulation. STUDY DESIGN Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with ceftriaxone, erythromycin, minocycline, or saline for 5 consecutive days starting from postnatal day 2 (P2), and(More)
The venomous sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni causes cases of severe stinging. We isolated Phyllodiscus semoni toxin 20A (PsTX-20A), a hemolytic and lethal polypeptide (20 kDa), from the nematocyst venom of this species for the first time. Furthermore, we sequenced the cDNA encoding PsTX-20A. The deduced amino acid sequence of PsTX-20A showed that this toxin(More)
Envenomation by the sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni causes fulminant dermatitis and, rarely, acute renal failure in humans. Here, we investigated whether the venom extracted from the nematocysts (PsTX-T) was nephrotoxic when administered intravenously in rats and whether PsTX-T induced activation of the complement system. Although small dose of PsTX-T(More)
Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are expressed in spermatocytes and granules of neutrophils in mammals, and are associated with sperm maturation and host defense. Related proteins have recently been recovered in snake venoms, and some of the snake venom-derived CRISPs exhibit ion channel blocking activity. Here we isolated and identified two novel(More)
We study a brane-antibrane system and a non-BPS D-brane in SU (2) WZW model. We first discuss the tachyon condensation using the vertex operator formalism and find the generation of codimension two D-branes after the condensation. Our result is consistent with the recent interpretation that a D2-brane is a bound state of D0-branes. Then we investigate the(More)